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Uj'JjrOD 




iiteliii imtiilii^i 



V^i 






£V^ 



AND 




-FOR THE- 



Southern States. 



(DESIGJ^JTErj) 

To give directions for the Cultivation of Vegetables^ as 

practiced in the South. 



Entered according to Act of Conorress by Richahd Frotsciier, in the office of the Librarian 

at Washington, in the year 1877. 



"';77-.A.I^E:^3:o■c^s:E: : 
Nos. 15 and 17 DU MAINE STREET, 

NEAR THE FRENCH MARKET, 



Ne\v Orleans, La 



INTEODTJOTION. 



For a series of years I distributed to my patrons, who applied 
to me for advice, Almanacs published in the North and Northwest 
and written principally with regard to those sections of the country. 

The directions which these works contained respecting the 
cultivation of vegetables, &c., although excellent for the regions 
spoken of, were almost useless, and in many cases totally unfeasible 
in the South, where the salubrity of the climate, the almost total 
absence of severe frosts, the practicability of raising successive 
similar or diversified crops in one season, and many other impor- 
tant natural causes, render the handling of the soil and times for 
planting necessarily very different. 

Having been a practical gardener myself, and, owing to my 
seed business, being brought in daily contact with the New Or- 
leans Market Gardeners, most of whom 1 supply with seeds, and 
having always taken a deep interest in the cultivation of vege- 
tables, I felt that I was qualified to give directions and informa- 
tion of a more practical value to Southern cultivators, than those 
found in the Almanacs and Seed Lists published by others who 
had not had these advantages. 

These considerations influenced me a few years since to com- 
pile and publish an Almanac and G-arden Manual, to present to 
the public, giving hints as to the proper time and methods of cul- 
tivating vegetables in the South, and so supply a want long felt 
in this portion of the country. 

In the improved condition of business in our section of the 
country, those who cultivate vegetables for sale, may look for a 
larger demand and a more extended field over which they can dis- 
tribute their products, and therefore the questions as to '' what to 
cultivated" and ^4iow to do itf are or greater interest than ever 
before. Those who have been pleased with the past numbers of 
my Almanac and Garden Manual, will find the present edition — 
for 1882 — complete, interesting add reliable. The work has been 
carefully revised and enlarged, and will, I trust, aid materially in 
the development of that line of industry to which it is devoted. 

I have received many letters from all parts of the South en- 
dorsing the correctness and utility of the information given in 
these pages, and accompanied with numberless compliments in 
reference to my perseverance and enterprise, and the usefulness 
of my book, for all of which I return hearty thanks. 

It has ever been my aim, by inte^rrity and strict attention to 
business, to merit the confidenceof customers and the community 
in general, and from the very liberal i)atronage bestowed on me, 
1 may without presumption flatter myself that I have succeeded 
in doing so. 

Hoping that my Almanac and Garden Manual may prove 
yearly of more and more assistance to the Gardeners of the South, 
and assuring my patrons that a continuance of their favors will 
be duly appreciated, I remain, yours truly, 

RICHARD FROTSCHER. 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garde}i Manual 



SEEDS BY MAIL. 



Seeds can be sent by mail to any part ot the United States in 
packages, not exceeding four pounds, at sixteen cents per pound 
or one cent per ounce or fraction thereof. On seeds ordered 
in papers or by the ounce I prepay the postage, except on peas, 
beans and corn. This refers to large sized papers which are sold 
at one dollar per dozen. When ordered by the pound, sixteen 
cents per pound postage has to be added to the price of the seeds. 
Peas, beans and corn thirty cents postage per quart. 

All packages are put up in the most careful manner, and 
every precaution taken to insure their reaching their destination 
in safety. Purchasers living at any place where my seeds are not 
sold, are requested to write to me to obtain their supplies. This 
will be more profitable than to buy from country stores where 
seeds left on commission are often kept till all power of germina- 
tion are destroyed. As Seed Merchants who give out their goods 
on commission, rarely collect what is not sold, oftener than once 
in every twelve or eighteen months, and as Lettuce, Spinach, 
Parsnip, Carrots and many other seeds will either not sprout at 
all or grow very imperfectly if kept over a summer in the South, 
to buy and plant such is but money, time and labor wasted. 

Here in our climate, where we plant garden vegetables as 
freely in autumn as in spring, and where often the seeds have to 
be put in the ground when the weather is very warm, it is an in- 
dispensable necessity to have perfectly fresh seeds. 

My arrangements with my growers are made so that I receive 
the new crop, expressly cleaned for me, as scon as it is matured. 
The varieties which are not raised in the North, I order from Eu- 
rope, and have them shipped so as to reach me about the begin- 
ning of August, just the time they are needed for fall planting. 
By following this plan I have always a full supply of fresh seeds 
of undoubted germinating qualities, while dealers who sell on 
commission have only those left from the winter previous. 

It can not be too well impressed on the minds of all cultiva- 
tors of vegetables, that seeds kept through a summer in this cli 
mate will not grow, wnd that all who use such seeds will be 
losers. 

All seeds that leave my establishment are thoroughly tested, 
and warranted to grow. 

Having received a great many complaints that letters which 
contained money addressed to me never reached me, I would cau- 
tion my customers not to send any money in letters, without reg- 
istering same. By sending one dollar or upward the cost, ten 
cents, can be charged to me. The cheapest and surest way is 
money order or draft, but where they can not be had, letters have 
to be registered, which can be done at any Post Office. 



For the Southern States, 



A few Remarks on Raising Vegetables for Shipping. 



Within the past few years the raising of early vegetables for 
shipping Westj has become quite an item in the neighborhood of 
Kew Orleans. We have advantages here, which are not found 
elsewhere, for that branch of industry. Freights have been re- 
duced to all points from here, and special cars built expressly for 
carrying green vegetables and fruit, have been put on the Rail- 
roads. We are earlier here than at any other point, and with the 
rich ground we have and the large supply of manure, to be had 
for the hauling only, early vegetables can be raised very success- 
fully. 

Almost every kind of vegetables are shipped from here, but 
Beans, Cucumbers, Beets, Tomatoes, Cabbage and Peas, form the 
bulk. In regard to Beans most gardeners make the mistake of 
planting common Red Beans, when they should plant Dwarf Wax 
or Valentine, which find much more ready sale and better prices 
than the first named. In the way of Cucumbers the improved White 
Spine is the best variety, as it bears abundantly, and as it keeps 
its color, is better adapted for shipping than any other. I have 
been supplying the largest growers in that line w?th seed ; the 
stock of which cannot be surpassed in quality. Of Beets only the 
dark red. Blood Turnip or the Egyptian should be planted for 
shipping purpose. The Egyptian is a very quickly growing va- 
riety and should not be sown quite so early as the Blood Turnip. 
January will be time enough. 

For Tomatoes the Extra Early Dwarf corner in bearing first, 
but should be planted only for the first crop, as when the Tilden 
and other large varieties come in the market, the former do not 
sell as well. Lettuce is shipped quite extensively 5 the Improved 
Passion is used principally for that purpose. 

Potatoes and Onions are shipped in large quantities; but the 
former are very uncertain in regard to prices. Late shipped On- 
ions generally pay better than those shipped too early. The market 
often gets over stocked with vegetables, but never in the spring of 
the year as long as they can be shipped, and the planting at that 
time is more remunerative than at any other. 

There is a broad field yet to growers of vegetables for shipping. 

The past season, owing to the late frosts we had, has not 
been so good as former years to raise and ship vegetables for the 
Northern and Western markets. We were rather late, and other 
sections came almost as soon to the markets as we did. Still 
there were good profits made in some instances. Early shipped 
potatoes paid well, also beans. It is not expected that we will 
have such a severe winter, so late, again the coming year, and 
raisers of vegetables for shipping should not be discouraged. 



Richard Frotscherh Almanac and Garden Manual 



1st Month. 



JANUARY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 

_ 

MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 4d. oh. 37m. Forenoon 

New Moon.- 12d. lOh. 36m. Forenoon. 

First Quarter. 19d. llh. 26m. Forenoon. 

Last Quarter ,26d. 12h- 33m. Forenoon. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & 



Y 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 




rises . 


sets. 


r. & s. 


Week 


h. m. 


h. m 


h. m. 



CHKONOI.OGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1) New Year Sunday. 



Luke 2. 



Day's Length, 9h. 42 m. 



1 


Sun. 


7 9 


4 51 


4 12 


2 


Mon. 


7 8 


4 52 


5 4 


3 


Tues. 


7 8 


4 52 


5 54 


4 


Wed. 


7 8 


4 52 


rise. 


5 


Thurs. 


7 7 


4 53 


6 4 


6 


Frid. 


7 7 


4 53 


6 59 


7 


Sat. 


7 7 


4 53 


7 59 



Union of Ireland with Great. Britain, 1801. 
Gen. Wolf born, Westerham, Ken', 1727. 
Eliot Warbnrtou, Hist.., Novelist, died, 1852 
Introdu'n Silk matinf'es into Europe, 1536. 
Vigil of Epiphany. 

Epiphany, or 12th day, old Christmas Day. 
Robert Ninoll, poet, boru, 1814. 



2) Ist Sunday after Epiphany. 



Luke 2. 



Day's Length, 9h. 48m. 



8 


Sun. 


7 6 


4 54 


8 56 


9 


Mon. 


7 6 


4 54 


9 28 


10 


Tues. 


7 6 


4 54 


10 47 


11 


Wed. 


7 5 


4 55 


11 48 


12 


Thnrs. 


7 4 


4 56 


morn. 


13 


Frid. 


7 3 


4 57 


12 34 


14 


Sat. 


7 3 


4 57 


1 56 



Bat. N. O., 1815, & laaag. Gov. Nicholls '77 
Car. Lucr. H-rsehel, Astrono'r, died. 1848. 
Ist Steamb't New Orleans fr. Pittsburg, '12. 
First Lottery drawn in England, 1569. 
St.Arcadius, Martyr. 

G Fox, Founder Sect of Quakers, dipd,1690. 
" Great Frost" in England, began, 1205. 



3) 


2d Sunday after Epiphany. 


John 2. Day's Length, 9h. 56m. 


15 


Sun. 


7 2 


4 58 


3 1 


Thomas Crofton Croker, born, 1798, 


16 


Mon. 


7 1 


4 59 


4 10 


Edmond Spencer, Poet, died 1599. 


17 


Tues. 


7 1 


4 59 


5 12 


Mozart, Musician, born, 1756. 


18 


Wed. 


7 


5 


6 6 


Festival of St. Peter's Chair, at Rome. 


19 


Thurs. 


7 


5 


set. 


James Watt, born, 1736. 


20 


Frid. 


6 59 


5 1 


6 53 


Coldest day in the century, 1838. 


21 


Sat. 


6 58 


5 2 


8 6 


St. Agnes, Virgin Marryr, 304. 



4) 


3d Sunday after Epiphany. 


Matth. 8. Day's Length, lOh. 4m. 


22 


Sun. 


6 58 


5 2 


9 14 


Francis Bacon, born, 1561. 


23 


Mod. 


6 57 


5 3 


10 20 


Thanksgiving for victory of 8tih, 1815. 


24 


Tues. 


6 56 


5 4 


11 22 


Frederick, the Great, born, 1712. 


25 


Wed. 


6 55 


5 5 


morn . 


St. Paul's Day. 


26 


Thurs, 


6 55 


5 5 


12 16 


Louisiana seceded, 1861. 


27 


Frid. 


6 54 


5 6 


12 59 


Admiral Lord Hood, died, 1816. 


28 


Sat 


6 53 


5 7 


2 13 


Henry VIII, died. 1547 . 



5) 4th Sunday. after Epiphany. 



Matth. 8. 



Day's Length, lOh. 16m. 



29 I Sun. 

30 Mon. 

31 Tues. 



6 52 
6 51 
6 50 



5 8 
5 9 
5 lo 



3 6 I E'nauuel de Swedenborg, born, 1688-89- 

4 King Charles I, beheaded, 1649. 

4 46 I Ben. Johnston, bora, 1574. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts,— 5642 — January 21, Rosh-chodesh Shebat. 



For the Southern States. 



2d Month. 



FEBRUARY. 



28 Days, 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 3d. 12h. 37m. Morning. 

New Moon lid. 3h. 12m. Morning. 

First Quarter 17d. 9h. 48m. Evening. 

Last Quarter 24d. 4h. 9m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & "Week 


Sun 

rises, 
h. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 


moon 
r. & 8. 
h. m. 


CHRONOI.OGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVBNTS. 


1 

2 
3 
4 


Wed. 

Thurs. 

Frid. 

Sat. 


(J 49 
6 49 

6 48 
6 47 


5 11 
5 11 
.5 12 
5 13 


5 26 

6 4 
rises. 
6 44 


Washington elected President, 1789. 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin. [Can- 
Hanry Cromwell, born, 1627. [dlemas day. 
Delegates from Conf derate Scates meet at 



6) Septuagesima Sunday. 



Matth 20. 



Day's Length, lOh. 2Hm. 



5 


Sun. 


6 46 


5 14 


7 44 


6 


Mou. 


6 45 


5 15 


8 45 


7 


Tues. 


6 44 


5 16 


9 50 


8 


Wed. 


6 43 


5 17 


10 52 


9 


Thurs. 


6 42 


5 18 


11 53 


10 


Frid. 


6 41 


5 19 


morn. 


11 


Sat. 


6 40 


5 20 


12 48 



OleBal!, born, 1810. [Moutgomery,Ala., '61. 

Charles II. King of Eogland, died, 1685. 

Charles Dickens, born, 1812. 

Mary Queen of Scots, beheaded, 1587. 

David Rezzio, murdered, 1565-66. 

Riot at Oxford, 1354. 

Mary, Qaeeu of England, born, 1516. 



7) Sexagesima Sunday. 



Luke 8. 



Day's Length, lOh. 42m' 



12 


Sun. 


13 


Mon. 


14 


Tues. 


15 


Wed. 


16 


Thurs. 


17 


Frid. 


18 


Sat. 



6 39 
6 38 
C 37 
6 36 
6 35 
6 34 
6 33 



21 


1 55 


22 


2 58 


23 


3 53 


24 


4 42 


25 


5 46 


26 


sets. 


27 


6 50 



Abraham Lincoln, born, 1809. 

St. Gregory II, Pope, 631. 

St. Valentine's Day. , 

Galilei Galileo, Astronomer, born, 1564. 

Dr. Kane, Am. Arctic Explorer, died, 1857. 

Columbia, S. C, burned, 1865. 

Pope Gregory V, died, 999. 



8) Quinquagesima Sunday. 



Luke 18. 



Day's Length, lOh. 56m. 



19 


Sun. 


6 32 


5 28 


7 56 


20 


Mon. 


6 31 


5 29 


8 59 


21 


Tues. 


6 30 


5 30 


10 6 


22 


Wed. 


6 29 


5 31 


11 10 


23 


Thurs. 


6 28 


5 32 


morn. 


24 


Frid. 


6 27 


5 33 


12 


25 


Sat. 


6 26 


5 34 


12 53 



Eliz. Career, classical scholar, died, 1806* 
U. Gaghan & T. Conner, felon poets* 
Mardi Gras in N. Orleans, [hanged, 1749> 
George Washingtcm, born, 1732. 
Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 
St. Matthias, Apostle. 
Dr. Bacan, born, 1729. 



9) 1st Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 4. 



Day's Length, lib, 10m' 



26 Sun. 


6 25 


5 35 


1 45 


27 Mon. 


6 24 


5 36 


2 3 


28 Tues. 


6 23 


5 37 


3 16 



Thomas Moore, Poet, died, 1852. 
Longfellow, born, 1807. [1447. 

Humphrey, Dulse of Gloucester, murdered. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts, — 5642 — February 18, Shekalim. — 19 and 20, Rosli- 

chodesh Adar . 



Richard Frotsclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



3d Month. 



MARCH. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon 4d. 7h. 18m. Evening. 

Last Quarter .....12d. 4h. 6m. Evening. 

New Moon 19d. 61i. 56m. Morning. 

First Quarter 26d. 3h. 12m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 



Sim 

rises. 

h. m. 



Sun 

sets. 

li. m. 



Moon, 
r. & s. 
h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Wed, 


6 22 


5 38 


3 50 


2 


Thurs, 


6 21 


5 39 


4 50 


3 


Frid. 


6 19 


5 41 


5 26 


4 


Sat. 


6 18 


5 42 


rises. 



1st num. of the Spectator published, 1711. 
Territory of Dakota organized, 1861. 
Edmord Waller, Poet, born, 1605. 
Abraham Lincoln inaugurated, 1861. 



10) 2d Sunday in Lent. 



Matth, 15, 



Day's Length, llh, 26m. 



5 


Sun. 


6 17 


5 43 


6 56 1 


6 


Mon. 


6 16 


5 44 


7 58 i 


7 


Tues. 


6 15 


5 45 


3 59 


8 


Wed, 


6 14 


5 46 


9 51 1 


9 


Thurs, 


6 13 


5 47 


10 59 1 


10 


Frid, 


6 11 


5 49 


11 59 


LI 


Sat. 


6 10 


5 50 


morn. 



1st Locomotive run through Brit. tube,1830. 

Great financial excitement, 1863, 

Blanthard, Aeronaut, died, 1809. 

King William III, of England, died, 1702. 

William Cobbett, born, 1762. 

The Forty Martyrs of St. Sebaste, 320, 

1st daily paper, " Daily Courant,''Br., 1702. 



11) 3d Sunday in Lent. 



Luke 11, 



Daj's Length, llh, 42ni. 



12 


Sun. 


6 9 


5 51 


12 51 


13 


Mon. 


6 8 


5 52 


1 49 


14 


Tues. 


6 7 


5 53 


2 48 


15 


Wed. 


6 6 


5 54 


3 19 


16 


Thurs. 


6 5 


5 55 


3 59 


17 


Frid. 


6 3 


5 57 


4 39 


18 


Sat. 


6 2 


5 58 


5 8 













St, Gregory the Great. Pope, 604. 
Discovery of planet Uranus, by Herschel, 
Andrew Jackson, born, 1767. [1781. 

Julius Caesar, assassinated, B. C, 44. 
Prince Hohenlohe's miraculous cures, 1823. 
St. Patrick. Apostle of Ireland, 
Edward, King and Martyr, 978. 



12) 


4th Sunday in 


Lent. 




John 6. Day's Length, llh. 5Sm. 


19 


Sun. 


6 1 


5 59 


sets. 


St, Joseph 8 Day. 


2J 


Mon. 


6 


6 


7 44 


Vesta discovered, 1807. 


21 


Tues. 


5 59 


6 1 


8 49 


Louisiana ceded to France, ISOO, 


22 


Wed. 


5 58 


6 2 


9 50 


J. W. von Goethe, Ger. Poet, died 1832. 


23 


Thurs. 


5 57 


6 3 


10 50 


Peter the Cruel, King of Castile. 'Hed, 


24 


Frid. 


5 56 


6 4 


11 46 


Mahomet, II, born 1430, [1369, 


25 


Sat. 


5 54 


6 6 


morn. 


Annunciation of the Blessed Vir. Mary. 



13) 5th Sunday in Lent. 



John 



Day's Length, r2h. 14m' 



26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Frid. 



53 


6 7 


12 31 


52 


6 8 


1 16 


51 


6 9 


1 58 


50 


6 10 


2 33 


49 


6 11 


3 5 


48 


6 12 


3 35 



Gov, Winthrop, died, 1640. 
Vera Cruz captured, 1847. 
Planet Pallas, discovered, 1802, 
Mrs. Fitzherbert, died, 1837. 
Dr. William Hunter, died, 1783. 
Beethoven, died, 1827. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5642 — March 2, Zom Ester. — 4, Sochor, 
Purim. — 11, Poroh. — 21, Rosh-chodesh Nisan. 







For the Southern States. 






9 


4th 


Month. 


APRIL. 




30 


Days 




Calculated fc 


r the Latitude of Sou 


thern 


state 


s. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moou 3cl. r2h. 25m. Afternoou. 

Last Quarter lid. Ih. 8m. Morning. 

New Moou 17d. 4h. 17m. Afternoon. 

First Quarter '25d. Ih. 34m. Morning. 



DAT 

OF 

Montli & Week 


Sun 

rises. 

h. m. 


San 

sets . 

li. m. 


Moon. 1 CHRONOLOGY 

r. & 8.1 — OF — 

h. m.| IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 |Sat. 


5 47 1 G 13 1 4 14 1 Earthquake at Melbourne, 1871. 


14) Palm Sunday. Matth. 21. Day's Length, 12h. 28m. 



2 


Sun. 


5 46 


6 14 


4 45 


3 


Mow. 


5 45 


6 15 


rises. 


4 


Tues. 


5 43 


6 17 


7 31 


i) 


Wed. 


5 42 


6 18 


8 43 


6 


Thurs. 


5 41 


6 19 


9 47 


7 


Frid. 


5 40 


6 20 


10 50 


8 


Sat. 


5 39 


6 21 


11 49 



Jeifersou, born, 1743. 

Washington Irving, born, 1783. 

Oliver Goldsmith, died, 1774. 

St. Irgernach, of Ireland, 550. 

Battle of Shiloh, 1862. 

Good Friday. 

Louisiana admitted to the Union, 1812. 



15) 


Easter Sunday 




Mark 16. Day's Length, 12h. 44m. 


9 


Sun. 


5 38 


6 22 


morn. 


Easter Sundav. 


10 


Mon. 


5 37 


6 23 


12 53 


St. Bademus, Abbot, Martyr, 376. 


11 


Toes. 


5 36 


6 24 


1 38 


Geo. Canning, born. 1770. [Sumter. 


12 


Wed. 


5 35 


6 25 


2 21 


First gun of Civil War fired, 1861, at Fort 


13 


Thurs. 


5 34 


6 26 


2 53 


Sydney Lady Morgan, died, 1859. 


14 


Frid. 


5 33 


6 27 


3 22 


Lincoln, assassinated. 1865. 


15 


Sat. 


5 32 


6 28 


3 53 


Geo. Calvert, Lord Baltimore, died, 1632. 



16) Ist Sunday after Easter. 



John 20. 



Day's Length, 12h. 58m, 



16 


Sun. 


5 31 


6 29 


4 37 


17 


Mon. 


5 30 


6 30 


sets. 


18 


Tues. 


5 29 


6 31 


7 34 


19 


Wed. 


5 28 


6 32 


8 33 


20 


Thurs. 


6 27 


6 33 


9 33 


21 


Frid. 


5 26 


6 34 


10 23 


22 


Sat. 


5 25 


6 35 


11 10 



Battle of Cull, den, 1746. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin, died, 1790. 

Shakespeare, born, 1564. 

Battle of Lexington, 1775. 

E. Barton, 'Maid of Kent," executed, 1534. 

Confed. victory at Plymouth, N. C, 1863. 

Madam Db Stael, born, 1766. 



17) 2d Sunday after Easter. 



John 10. 



Day's Length, 13h. 12m. 



23 


Sun. 


5 24 


6 36 


11 .54 


24 


Mun. 


5 23 


6 37 


morn. 


25 


Tues. 


5 22 


6 38 


12 .54 


26 


Wed. 


5 21 


6 39 


1 25 


27 


Thurs. 


5 20 


6 40 


1 59 


28 


Frid. 


5 19 


6 41 


2 26 


29 


Sat. 


5 18 


6 42 


2 56 



Shakespeare, died, 1616, 

Oliver Cromwell, born, 1599. 

St. Mark's Day. 

David Hume, born, 1711. [1794. 

Sir Wm. Jones, Poet and Scholar, died, 

Monroe, born, 1758. 

King Edward IV, of England, born, 1441^ 



18) 3d Sunday after Easter. 



John 



Day's Length, 13h. 26m. 



30 |Sun. I 5 17 | 6 43 | 3 24 | Louisiana purchased from France by U. S. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — .5642 — April l,Hagodol — 4, and 5, First Days of 

Pesach — 10 and 11, Last Days of Pesach — 19 and 20, Rosh — 

chodesh lyar. 



10 



Richard Frotschet^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



5th Month, 



MAY. 



31 Days- 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES 

Fall Moon. 3d. 3h. 

Last Quarter lOd. 7h. 

New Moon 17d. '2h. 

First Quarter --.24d. Th. 



9m. Morning. 

13m. Morning. 

l!m. Morning. 

20m. Evening. 



DAT 

OF 

Month & 



San 1 
rises, 
h. m. h, 



Sun 



Moon 

:■• & 8. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 

:mportant events. 



Mon. 


5 16 


6 44 


3 56 


Tues. 


5 15 


6 4.5 


4 28 


Wed. 


5 14 


6 46 


rises. 


Thurs. 


5 14 


6 46 


8 32 


Frid. 


6 13 


6 47 


9 37 


Sat. 


5 12 


6 48 


10 34 



Sg. Pliillip and 8t;. James, Apostles. 
William Camden, born. 1551. 
DisGov'y of the Holy Cross, by Sfc. Helena. 
Dr. Isiac Birrow, Eog. divine, died, 1677. 
Emperor Justinian, born, 482. 
Humboldr,, died, 1859. 



19) 4th Sunday after Easier. 



John 16. 



Day's Langth, 13h. 38m. 



7 


Sun. 


5 11 


6 49 


11 25 


8 


Mon. 


5 10 


6 50 


raoru. 


9 


Tues. 


5 10 


6 50 


12 10 


10 


Wed. 


5 9 


6 51 


12 46 


11 


Thurs. 


5 8 


6 52 


1 17 


12 


Frid. 


5 7 


6 53 


1 49 


13 


Sat. 


5 6 


6 54 


2 20 



St. Benedict H, Pope, Confessor, 686, 
Stonewall, Jackson, died, 1863. 
Battle of Spotsylvania, 1864. 
Pacific Railroad fiaished, 1869. 
Madame Ricamire, died, 1849. 
St. Pancras, Martyr, 304. 
Jamestown, Va., settled, 1607. 



20) 5tli Sunday after Easter. 



John 16. 



Day's Langt.h, 13h. 50m. 



14 


Sun. 
Mon. 


5 5 


6 55 


2 49 


15 


5 5 


6 55 


3 22 


16 


Tues. 


5 4 


6 56 


3 55 


17 


Wed. 


5 3 


6 57 


sets. 


18 


Thurs. 


5 2 


6 58 


8 28 


19 


Frid. 


5 2 


6 58 


9 16 


20 


Sat. 


5 1 


6 59 


10 



1775. 



B ittle of Crown Point, 

St. Isidore, died, 1170. 

Sir William Petty, born, 1623. 

J. Jay, died, 1829. 

Ascension Day. 

St.Dunstan, Archbish. of Canterbury, 988. 

Hawthorn, died, 1864. 



21) 6th Sunday after Easter. John 15. Day's Length, 13h. 58m. 



21 


Sun. 


5 1 


6 59 


10 37 


Columbus, died. 1506. 


22 


Mon. 


5 


7 


11 12 


Title of Baronet first conferred, 1611. 


23 


Tues. 


4 59 


7 1 


11 42 


Napoleon I, crowned King of Icaly, 1805. 


24 


Wed. 


4 58 


7 2 


Qiorn. 


Bishop Jewel, born, 1522. 


25 


Thurs, 


4 58 


7 2 


12 15 


B ittle of Wiachester, 1864. 


26 


Frid. 


4 57 


7 3 


12 50 


Fort Erie captured. 1813. 


27 


Sat. 


4 57 


7 3 


1 23 


Dante, poet, bo'-n, 1265. 



22) Wliit Sunday. 



John 4. 



Day's Length, 14h. 8m. 



28 


Sun. 


4 56 


7 4 


1 49 


29 


Mon. 


4 56 


7 4 


2 19 


30 


Tues. 


4 55 


7 5 


2 55 


31 


Wed. 


4 55 


7 5 


3 26 



Noah Webster, died, 1843. 

Paris burned, 1871. 

Peter the Great, of Russia, born, 1672. 

Joan of Arc, burned, 1431. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts — 5642 — May 7, Lag Beomer — 19, Rosh-chodesh 
Siven — 24, Shebuoth. 



For the Southern States. 



11 



6th Month. 



JUNE. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

^uUMoon Id. 3h. 12m. Afternoon. 

Last Quarter 8d. lOh. 48m. Forenoon. 

New Moon 15d. Ih. 13m. Afternoon. 

First Qnarter 23d. 12h. 40m. Afternoon. 



DA.T 1 Sun ;:un 

OF rises. sets. 
Month & Week li. m. i h. m. 


Moon. 

r. & s. 
h. m. 


CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 IThurs. 1 4 54 7 6 1 

2 Frid. 4 54 7 6 

3 |Sat. 4 53 1 7 7 


rises. 

8 23 

9 10 


Battle ol Seven Pines, 1862. 
Battle of Cold Harbor, 1864. 
S. A. Douglas, died, 1861. 


23) Trinity Sunday. 




John 3. Day's Length, 14h. 14m. 



4 


Sun. 


4 53 . 


7 7 


9 54 


5 


Mon. 


4 52 


7 8 


10 32 


6 


Tues. 


4 52 


7 8 


11 10 


7 


Wed. 


4 51 


7 9 


11 45 


8 


Thurs. 


4 51 


7 9 


morn. 


9 


Frid. 


4 51 


7 9 


12 22 


10 


Sat. 


4 51 


7 9 


12 56 



Lord R Dudley, Earl of Leicester marr'd A. 

J. Pradier,Sculptor,died,1852.[RobHart,1550 

Surrender of Memphis, Tenn., 1862. 

First American Congress, at New York 1765 

Emperor Nero, died, 68, Rome. 

Charles Dickens, died, 1870. 

Battle of Big Bethel, 1861. 



24) Ist Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 16. 



Day's Length, 14h. 22m. 



11 


Sun. 


4 50 


7 10 


1 37 


12 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


2 2 


13 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


2 41 


14 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


3 25 


15 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


sets. 


16 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


8 8 


17 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


8 45 



Sir John Franklin, died, 1847. 

Harriett Martineau, Novelist, horn, 1802, 

General Scott, born, 1786. 

Sr. Basil, the Great, 379. 

Magna Charter, 1215. 

Edward I, of England, born, 1239. 

Corpus Christi. 



25) 2d Sunday after Trinity. Luke 14. 



Day's Length, 14h. 20m. 



18 


San. 


4 49 


7 11 


9 24 


19 


Mon. 


4 49 


7 11 


9 54 


20 


Tues. 


4 49 


7 11 


10 20 


21 


Wed. 


4 48 


7 12 


11 


22 


Thurs. 


4 49 


7 11 


11 28 


23 


Frid. 


4 49 


7 11 


11 51 


24 


Sat. 


4 49 


7 11 


morn. 



War declared against Great Britain, 1812. 

Kersarge sink the Alabama, 1864. 

St. Silverius, Pope and Martyr, 538. 

Anthony Collins, born, 1676, 

Napoleon I, abdicated, 1815, 

Battle of Solferino, 1859. 

Nativity of St. John the Baptist. 



26) 3d Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 15. 



Day's Length, 14h. 20m, 



25 


Sun. 


4 50 


7 10 


12 31 


26 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


1 13 


27 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


1 57 


28 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


2 41 


29 


Thurs. 


4 50 


7 10 


3 22 


30 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


3 59 



Battle of Bannochburn. 
Dr. Philip Doddrige, born, 1702. 
John Murray, Publisher, died, 1843. 
Queen Victoria, crowned, 1838. 
St. Peter the Apostle, 68. 
Bishop Gavin Dunbar, died. 1547. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5642— June 18, Roah-chodesh Tamus. 



12 



Eichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



7th Month. 



JULY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon Id. 121i. 47m. Morning. 

Last Quarter 7d. 4h. 30m. Afternoon. 

New Moon 15d. Ih. 40m. Morning. 

First Quarter .23d. 41i. .56m. Morning. 

Full Moon... 30d. 8h. 40m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 


Sun 
rises. 
li. m, 


Sun Moon 
sets. r. & 8. 
li. m. li. m. 


CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 |Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 1 rises. 1 


Battle of Malvern Hill, 1862. 


27) 4th Sunday after Trinity . 


Luke 6. Day's Length, 14h. 18m' 



2 


Sun. 


4 51 


7 9 


8 31 


3 


Mod. 


4 51 


7 9 


9 9 


4 


Tues. 


4 51 


7 9 


9 40 


5 


Wed. 


4 51 


7 9 


10 12 


6 


Thurs. 


4 52 


7 8 


10 57 


7 


Frid. 


4 52 


7 8 


11 16 


8 


Sat. 


4 52 


7 8 


11 50 



Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
Quebec founded, 1608. 
Independence of the United States, 1776. 
Queen Magdalen of Scotland, died, 1537. 
Tb. More, Chancel, of Eng. beheaded, 1535. 
Dr. Th. Blaeklock, " the blind poet," died, 
John de la Fontaine, born, 1621. [1791. 



28) 5th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 5. 



Day's Length, 14h. 14m. 



9 


Sun. 


4 53 


7 7 


morn. 


10 


Mon. 


4 53 


7 7 


12 36 


11 


Tues. 


4 54 


7 6 


1 17 


12 


Wed. 


4 54 


7 6 


2 4 


13 


Thurs. 


4 55 


7 5 


2 53 


14 


Frid. 


4 56 


7 4 


3 42 


15 


Sat. 


4 56 


7 4 


sets. 



Zachary Taylor, died, 1850. 

John Calvin, theologian, born, 1509. 

J. Q. Adams, born, 1767. 

Robt, Stevenson, engineer, etc., died 1850. 

Dog days begin. 

John HuBter, eminent surgeon, born 1728. 

St. Swithin's Day. 



29) 6th Sunday after Trinity. 



Marks. 



Day's Length, 13h. 6m 



16 


Sun. 


4 57 


7 3 


7 53 


17 


Mon. 


4 57 


7 3 


8 22 


18 


Tues. 


4 58 


7 2 


8 58 


19 


Wed. 


4 59 


7 1 


9 31 


20 


Thurs. 


4 59 


7 1 


10 


21 


Frid. 


5 


7 


10 30 


22 


Sat. 


5 1 


6 59 


11 16 



Great riot in New York city, 1863. 

Dr. Isaac Watts, born, 1647. 

St. Symphorosia and 7 sons, Martyrs, 120. 

St. Vincent de Paul, confessor, 1660. 

Confed. Congress met at Richmond, 1861. 

Battle of Bull Run, 1861. 

Urania discovered, 1824. 



30) 7th Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 5. 



Day's Length 14h. 58m. 



23 


Sun. 


5 1 


6 59 


U 64 


24 


Mon. 


5 2 


6 58 


morn. 


25 


Tues. 


5 2 


6 58 


12 43 


26 


Wed. 


5 3 


6 57 


1 34 


27 


Thurs. 


5 4 


6 56 


2 24 


28 


Frid. 


5 4 


6 56 


3 14 


29 


Sat. 


6 5 


6 55 


3 52 



First Olympiad, 776, B. C 

Curran born, 17.50. 

St. James the Great. 

Flood at Pittsburg, 1874. 

Atlantic cable, laid, 1866. 

Battle before Atlanta, Ga., 1864, 

Albert I, Emp. of Germany, born, 1289. 



31) 8th Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth, 7. 



Day's Length, 13h. 48m. 



I Sun. 
Mon. 



6 54 
6 53 



rises. I Westlield explosion, N. Y. Harbor, 1871. 
7 38 I St. Ignatius, Loyola, died, 1556. 



,30 
31 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5642 — July 17, Rosh-chodesh Ab. 25, Tishoh 

beab. 29, Sabbath Nachmu. 



For the Southern States. 



13 



8th Month. 



AUGUST. 



31 Days, 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 



MOON'S PHASES 

Last Quarter , 5d. lOh. 52m. 

New Moon 13d. 3h. 49m. 

First Quarter 21d. /h. 33m. 

Full Moon '. . . .28d. 3h. 57m. 



Evening. 
Afternoon. 
Evening. 
Afternoon. 



DAY 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


OF 


rises. 


sets. 


r. & 8. 


uh & Week 


li. m. 


h. m. 


h. m. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



Tues. 


5 7 


6 53 


8 1 


Wed. 


5 8 


6 52 


8 42 


Thurs. 


5 9 


6 51 


9 15 


Frid. 


5 10 


6 50 


9 49 


Sat. 


5 11 


6 49 


10 25 



Harriet Lee, Novelist, died, 1851. 
Mehemed Ali, Pasha of Egypt, died, 1849. 
Crown Point taken, 1759. 
John Banim, Irish Novelist, died, 1842. 
First Atlantic Cable landed, 1858. 



32) 9th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 16. 



Day's Length, 13h. 36m. 



Sun. 


5 12 


6 48 


Mon. 


5 13 


6 47 


Tues. 


5 13 


6 47 


Wed. 


5 14 


6 46 


Thurs. 


5 15 


6 45 


Frid. 


5 16 


6 44 


Sat 


5 17 


6 43 



11 18 
morn. 

12 28 

1 22 

2 21 

3 19 

4 17 



Transfiiguration of onr Lord. 

Leonidas, Spartan Hero, slain, 480, B. C. 

Fr. Hutcheson, Moral Philos., born, 1694. 

Isaac Walton, born, 1593. 

Battle of Weisenburg, 1870. 

Viscount Rowland Hill, born, 1772. 

Pope Gregory IX, died, 1241. 



S3) 10th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 19. 



Day's Length, 13h. 24m 



13 


Sun. 


5 18 


6 42 


sets. 


Earthquake in Scotland, 1816. 


14 


Mon. 


5 19 


6 41 


6 57 


G. Coleman, the elder, Dramatist, died,1794. 


15 


Tues. 


5 20 


6 40 


7 27 


Ascension of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 


16 


Wed. 


5 21 


6 39 


7 56 


Battle of Bennington, 1777. 


17 


Thurs. 


5 22 


6 38 


8 30 


Frederick, the Great, died, 1786. 


18 


Frid. 


5 23 


6 37 


8 56 


John, Earl Russell, born, 1792. 


19 


Sat. 


5 24 


6 36 


9 35 


Battle of Graveiotte, 1870. 



34) 11th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 18. 



Day's Length, 13h. 10m. 



20 


Sun. 


5 25 


6 35 


10 18 


21 


Mon. 


5 26 


6 34 


11 10 


22 


Tues. 


5 27 


6 33 


morn. 


23 


Wed. 


5 28 


6 32 


12 19 


24 


Thurs. 


5 29 


6 31 


1 25 


25 


Frid. 


5 30 


6 30 


2 38 


26 


Sat. 


5 31 


6 29 


3 32 



Robert Herrick, English Poet, born, 1591. 
Lady Mary Wortley Montague, died, 1762. 
Dr. F. J. Gall, founder of Phrenology, died, 
Wallace, beheaded, 1305. [1828. 

St. Bartholomew, Apostle. 
25th or 27th, Landing of Caesar in England, 
Sir Rob. Walpole, born, 1676. [55 B. C. 



35) 12th Sunday after Trinity. 



Mark 7. 



Day's Length, 12h. 56m. 



27 


Sun. 


5 32 


6 28 


4 4 


28 


Mon. 


5 33 


6 27 


rises. 


29 


Tues. 


5 34 


6 26 


6 42 


30 


Wed. 


5 35 


6 25 


7 14 


31 


Thurs. 


5 36 


6 24 


7 53 



Dog Davs end. 

Leigh Hunt, died, 1859. 

John Locke, Philosopher, born, 1632. 

Union defeat at Richmond, Ky. 

John Bunyan, died, 1683. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5642 — August 16, Rosh-chodesh Elul. 



14 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



9th Month. 



SEPTEMBER. 



30 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 4d. 8h. 

New Moon 12d. 71i. 

First Quarter 20d. 8h. 

Full Moon 26d. llh. 



Sin. Mornicg. 

36m, Morning. 

5m. Morning. 

48m. Evenina:, 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 


Sun 
rises, 
h. m 


Sun 

seta. 

li. m. 


Moon 

r. <fc 8. 
h. m. 


CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 
2 


Frid. 

Sat. 


5 37 
5 38 


6 23 
6 22 


8 26 

9 


Napoleon III, captured at Sedan, 1870. 
Great fire in London, 1666. 


36) 13th Sunday after Trinity. 


Luke 10. Day's Length, ISh. 42m. 



3 


Sun. 


5 39 


6 21 


9 44 


4 


Mon. 


5 40 


6 20 


10 30 


5 


Tues. 


5 42 


6 18 


11 29 


6 


Wed. 


5 43 


6 17 


morn. 


7 


Thurs. 


5 44 


6 16 


12 13 


8 


Frid. 


5 45 


6 15 


1 9 


9 


Sat. 


5 46 


6 14 


2 9 



Cromwell died, 1658. 
Pindar, Lyric poet, 518, B. C. 
Confederates entered Maryland, 1862. 
Geo. Alex. Stevens, writer, died, 1784. 
Independence of Brazil, 1822, 
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. 
James IV, of Scotland, killed, 1513. 



37) 14th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 16. 



Day's Length, 12h. 26m 



10 


Sun. 


5 47 


6 13 


3 8 


11 


Mon. 


5 48 


6 12 


4 6 


12 


rues. 


5 50 


6 10 


sets. 


13 


VV.d. 


5 51 


6 9 


6 25 


14 


Thurs. 


5 52 


6 8 


6 55 


15 


Frid. 


5 53 


6 7 


7 21 


16 


Sat. 


5 54 


6 6 


7 58 



Mungo Park, African Traveler, born, 1771, 

James Thomson, poet, born, 1700, 

St, Guy, Confessor, 11th century. 

Sir Wm. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, born, 1520, 

Uprising of tae People of N. O. against the usurping gov'ment, 

Capture Harper's Ferry by S'ewall Jack8)n 
Gabriel Dau'l Fahrenheit, died 1736. [1862. 



38) 15th Sunday after Trinity, 



Matth, 6. 



Day's Length, 12h, 10m, 



17 


Suii. 


5 55 


6 5 


8 39 


18- 


Mon, 


5 56 


6 4 


9 -3 


19 


Tues, 


5 57 


6 3 


10 20 


20 


Wed, 


5 58 


6 2 


11 23 


21 


Thurs. 


5 59 


6 1 


morn. 


22 


Frid, 


6 


6 


12 23 


23 


Sat, 


6 1 


5 59 


1 37 



Battle of Antietam, 1862, 

Gili ert Bishop Burnet, hist'an, born, 1643, 

Firxt battle of Paris, 1870, 

Alexander the Great, born, 356 B. C, 

St. Mathew, Apostle and Evangelist, 

Beginning of Autumn, 

"Wm, Upcott, Manuscr, Collec,, died, 1845, 



39) 16th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 



Day's Length, llh, 56m, 



24 


Sun. 


6 2 


5 58 


2 39 


25 


Mon. 


6 3 


5 57 


3 45 


26 


Tues, 


6 4 


5 56 


4 48 


27 


Wed, 


6 5 


5 55 


rises. 


28 


Thurs, 


6 6 


5 54 


6 27 


29 


Frid. 


6 7 


5 53 


7 5 


30 


Sat. 


6 8 


5 52 


7 48 



Pepin, King of France, 768, 

Pacific Ocean discovered, 1513, 

Saints Crprian and Jastina, Martyrs, 304. 

Stras^burg fell, 1870. 

Sir Wm, Jones, Oriental Scholar, born, 



Michaelmas Day, 
Yorktown invested. 



1781, 



[1746. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5643 -September 15, EosL-Hashonah, 
Gedaljah. — 23 Jom Kipur. 



-17, Zom 



For the Southern States. 15 


lOth Month. OCTOBER. 31 Days, 




Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 


MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 3d. 8h. 56m. Evening. 

New Moon 12d. 12h. 40m. Morning, 

First Quarter 19d. 6h. 33m. Evening. 

Full Moon 26d. 91i. 12m. Morning. 


DAY 

OP 

Mouth & Week 


Sun 
rises, 
h. m. 


Sun 

sets. 

li. m. 


Moon 
r. & s. 
h. m. 


CHRONOLOGY. 

—OF — 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


40) 17tli Sunday after Trinity. Luke 14. Day's Length, llh. 42m. 1 


1 
2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 


Sun. 

Mon . 

Tnes. 

Wed. 

Thurs- 

Frid. 

Sat. 


6 9 1 5 51 
6 10 i 5 50 
6 11 5 49 
6 12 5 48 
6 14 5 46 
6 15 5 45 
6 16 5 44 


8 34 

9 24 

10 15 

11 8 
U 59 
morn. 

12 54 


Fulton's tirst steamboat trip, 1807. 

-Andre executed as a spy, 1780. 

Black Hawk, died, 1838. 

Battle of Germantown, 1777. 

Horace Walpole, boro, 1717. 

Jenny Li nd, born, 1820. 

Margaret, Maid of Norway, died 1290. 


41) 18th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. !^2. Day's Length, llh. 26m. ] 


8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

PVid. 

Sat. 


6 17 

6 18 
6 19 
6 20 
6 21 
6 23 
6.24 


5 43 
5 42 
5 41 
5 40 
5 39 
5 37 
5 36 


1 50 

2 51 

3 48 

4 44 

sets. 
6 9 
6 43 


Battle ot Perry ville, Ky., 1862. 
Great Fire in Chicago, 1871. 
Benjamin West, Painter, born, 1738. 
America discovered, 1492. 
St. Wilfrid, Bshop of York, 709. 
Kattle of Queonstown, 1812. 
Battleof Jena. 1806. 


43) 19th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9, Day's Length, llh, 10m. 1 


15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 
21 


Sua. 

Mon. 

Tues. 

Wed. 

Thurs. 

Frid. 

Sit. 


6 25 
6 25 
6 26 
6 27 
6 28 
6 29 
6 30 


5 3o 
5 35 
5 34 
5 33 
5 32 
5 31 
5 30 


7 25 Vuj^il, Laim Poet, born, 70 B, C 

8 23 Marie Antoinette, beheaded, 1793. 

9 21 Burgoyne, surrendered, IVVV. 

10 26 Last State Lottery drawn, in Engl,, 1826, 

11 31 Cornwallis, surrendered, 1781. 

morn. M. Dahl, Swed. Portr«,it Painter, died,1743. 

12 27 Battle of Trafalgar, 180.S, 


43) 20ih Sunday after Trinity, Matth. 22. Day's Length, lOh. 56m, 1 


22 
23 

24 
25 
26 
27 

2W 


Sun. 

Mon. 

Tues, 

Wed, 

Thurs. 

Frid, 

Sni-. 


6 32 
6 33 
6 34 
6 35 
6 36 
6 37 
H 38 


5 28 
5 27 
5 26 
5 25 
5 24 
5 23 
5 22 


1 34 

2 44 

3 52 
5 

rises. 

5 48 

6 36 


Charles Mariel, died, 741. 

Dr. John Jortin, Critic, born, 1698. 

Daniel Webster, died, 1852. 

Dr. James Beattie, Poet, born, 1735. 

Hogarth, died, 1765. 

Cuba discovered, 1492. 

Battle at White Plains, 1776. 


44) 21st Sunday afrer Trinity. John 4. Day's Length, lOh. 42m 1 


29 
30 
31 


Sau. 
Mon. 
I'ues. 


6 3i> 1 5 21 1 7 3^ 
6 40 5 20 8 26 
6 41 1 5 19 9 20 


teurrender of Metz, 187U. 

Solomon's Temple dedicated, 1004 B. C. 

All Hallow Eve- 


Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5043— October 4, Hoshaino-raboh.— 5. Snemini 
Azareth.— 6. Simchas Tora.— 14. Rosh-chodesh Cheshwan. 



16 



Eichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



11th MontL 



NOVEMBER. 



30 Days, 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Qaarter 2d. Ih. .36in. Afternoon. 

New Moon lOd. 5h. 58m. Evening. 

First Qaarter 18d. 3h, 20m. Morning. 

Full Moon 24d. 8h. 41m, Evening. 



DAT 


Sun 


Sun 


Moon 


OF 


rises. 


sets. 


r. &is. 


Dh & "Week 


h. m. 


Ix. m. 


h.. m. 



CHRONOLOGY. 

—OP- 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Wed, 


6 42 


5 18 10 11 


2 


Thurs. 


6 43 


5 17 11 6 


3 


Frid, 


6 44 


5 16 morn. 


4 


Sat, 


6 45 


5 15 12 6 



All Saints Day. 

All Sonls Day, 

Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, 1148. 

George Peabody, died, 1869. 



45) 22d Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth, 18. 



Day's Length, lOh. 30m. 



5 


Sun. 


6 45 


5 15 


1 11 


6 


Mon. 


6 46 


5 14 


2 19 


7 


Tnes. 


6 47 


5 13 


3 24 


8 


Wed. 


6 4^ 


5 12 


4 37 


9 


Thurs. 


6 49 


5 11 


5 45 


10 


Frid. 


6 50 


5 10 


sets. 


11 


Sat. 


6 51 


5 9 


5 58 



The American 74 laaached, 1782. 

Battle of Port R>yal, 1861. 

John Kyrle, " The man of Eoss," died, 1724. 

Cortez entered Mexico, 1519. 

Great Fire in Boston, 1872 

Mahomet, Arabian Prophet, born, .570. 

Martinmas. 



46) 23d Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth. 22. 



Day's Length, lOh. 16m. 



12 


Sun. 


6 52 


5 8 


6 59 


13 


Mon. 


6 53 


5 7 


7 59 


14 


rues. 


6 54 


5 6 


6 10 


15 


Wed. 


6 54 


5 6 


10 24 


16 


Thurs. 


6 55 


5 5 


11 33 


17 


Frid. 


6 56 


5 4 


morn, j 


18 


Sat. 


6 57 


5 3 


12 10 1 



Sherman left Atlanta, 1864. 

French entered Vienna, 1805. 

Sir Chas. Lyell, Geologist, born, 1797. 

John Keppler, great Astronomer, died, 1630. 

Tiberius, Roman Emperor, born, 42 B. C. 

Suez Canal opened, 1869. 

Fort Lee taken by the British, 1776. 



47) 24th Sunday after Trinity, 



Matth, 9. 



Day's Length, lOh, 6m, j 



19 


Sun. 


6 57 


5 3 


12 45 


20 


Mon. 


6 58 


5 2 


1 46 


21 


Tues, 


6 59 


5 1 


2 58 


22 


Wed. 


6 59 


5 1 


4 7 


23 


Thurs. 


7 


5 


5 24 


24 


Frid. 


7 1 


4 59 


rises. 


25 


Sat, 


7 1 


4 59 


5 34 



St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Widow, 1231. 
Thomas Chatterton, poet, born, 1752. 
Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. 
Professor Dugald Steward, born, 1753. 
Th. Henderson, Prof of Astron, died, 1844. 
Battle of Lookout Mountain, 1863. 
Evaouation of New York, 1783. 



48) 25th Sunday after Trinity. 



Matth, 24. 



Day's Length, 9h, 56m. 



26 


Sun. 


7 2 


4 58 


6 29 


27 


Mon. 


7 2 


4 58 


7 22 


28 


Tues. 


7 3 


4 57 


8 18 


29 


Wed, 


7 3 


4 57 


9 16 


30 


Thurs. 


7 4 


4 56 


10 11 



John Elwes, noted miser, died, 1789. 

Sbeam Printing, 1814. 

Washington Irving, died, 1859. 

Sir Philip Sidney, poet, born, 1554. 

U. S. took possession of Louisiana, 1803. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts, — 5643 — November 12, Rosh-chodesh Kislev, 



For the Southern States. 



17 



12th Month. 



DECEMBER- 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of Southern States, 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 2cl. 9h. 

New Moon lOd. lOh. 

First Quarter 17d. lib. 

Full Moon 24d. lOh. 



36iu. Forenoon 

16tn. Forenoon. 

18ni. Forenoon. 

20ni. Forenoon. 



DAY 

OF 

Month & Week 


Sun 
rises, 
h. m. 


Sun 
sets 
h. m. 


MOOQ 

r. & s. 
h. m. 


CHRONOLOGY 

—OP- 
IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 Frid. 7 5 

2 Sit. 7 6 


4 55 11 8 
4 54 11 58 


Princess A. Comnena, Historian, born 1083. 
Hernan Cortes, died, 1547. 


49) l8t Sunday in 


Advent. 


Matth. 21. Day's length, 9h. 48m. 



3 


Sun. 


7 6 


4 54 


morn. 


4 


Mon. 


7 7 


4 53 


12 59 


5 


Tues. 


7 7 


4 53 


2 6 


ij 


Wed. 


7 7 


4 53 


3 10 


7 


Thurs. 


7 8 


4 52 


4 4 


8 


Frid. 


7 8 


4 52 


5 


9 


Sat. 


7 8 


4 52 


5 48 



Robert Bloomfield, Poet, born, 1776. 

Pope John, XXII, died, 1334. 

Carlyle, born, 1795. 

St. Nicholas, Archbishop of Myra, 342. 

Cicero, Roman orator, assassinated, 43 B. C. 

Immaculate Conception of Blessed Virgin. 

Milton, born, 1608. 



50) 2d Sunday in Advent - 



Luke 21. 



Day's length, 9h. 42m. 



10 


Sun. 


7 9 


4 51 


sets. 


11 


Mon. 


7 9 


4 51 


5 54 


12 


Tues. 


7 9 


4 51 


6 59 


13 


Wed. 


7 9 


4 51 


8 14 


14 


Thurs. 


7 10 


4 50 


9 27 


15 


Frid. 


7 10 


4 50 


10 34 


16 


Sat. 


7 10 


4 50 


11 40 



Louis Napoleon, elected President, 1848. 
Louis, Prince of Conde, died 1686. 
St. Columba, Abbot in Ireland, 584. 
Battle of Fredericksburg, 1862. 
Washington, died, 1799. 
David Don, Botanist, died, 1841. 
Great Fire in New York, 1835. 



51) 3d Sunday in Advent. 



Mattn. 11. 



Day's length, 9h. 40m. 



17 


Sun, 


7 10 


4 50 


morn. 


18 


Mon. 


7 11 


4 49 


12 30 


19 


Tues 


7 11 


4 49 


1 30 


20 


Wed. 


7 11 


4 49 


2 32 


21 


Thurs. 


7 12 


4 48 


3 34 


22 


Frid. 


7 11 


4 49 


4 35 


23 


Sat. 


7 11 


4 49 


5 38 



Ludw. Beethoven, emin. comp., born, 1770. 
St. Winebald, Abbot and Confessor, 760. 
Capt. W. Ed. Parry, Arct. Nav., born, 1790. 
Secession ord. passed in S. Carolina, 1860. 
St. Thomas, Apostle. 

Emp. Vetellius, beheaded at Rome, 69 A. D. 
Newton, born, 1642. 



52) 4th Sunday in Advent. 



John 1. 



Day's length, 9h. 38m. 



24 


Sun. 


7 11 


4 49 


rise. 


25 


Mon. 


7 10 


4 50 


5 49 


26 


Tues. 


7 10 


4 50 


6 50 


27 


Wed. 


7 10 


4 50 


7 33 


28 


Thurs. 


7 10 


4 50 


8 31 


29 


Frid. 


7 9 


4 51 


9 24 


30 


Sat. 


7 9 


4 51 


10 25 



Treaty of Ghent, 1814. 

Nativity of our Jjord. Christmas Day. 

Battle of Trenton, 1776. 

St. John, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Maoauley, died, 1859. 

Union repulsed at Vicksburg, Miss., 1862. 

Titus, Roman Emperor, born, 41, A. D. 



53) Sunday after Christmas. 



Luke 2. 



Day's length, 9h 42m. 



31 I Sun. 17 9 I 4 51 I 11 24 j Battle of Murfreesboro, 1862. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts— 5643— December 6, Chanukah. 11. Rosh cho- 
H desh Thebeth. 



18 Ricliard Froisclier'^s Almanac and Oar den Manual 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 



The size de^jeuds upon the purposes for which it is iuteuded; 
whether the family is large or small, aud the time which can be 
devoted to its cultivation. The most suitable soil for a garden is 
a light loam. When the soil is too heavy, it ought to be made 
light by ai)plying stable manure, aud working up the ground 
thoroughly. Trenching as doue iu Europe, or North, is not ad- 
visable, at least where there is any coco, as by trenching the 
roots of this pest will get so deeply incorporated with the soil that 
it will be very hard afterwards to get rid of it. Exposure to- 
wards the east is desirable. If there are one or more large trees 
in the garden, or on the immediate outside, their shade can be 
used in which to sow Celery, Cabbage and other seeds during the 
hot summer months, which will be an advantage. The seed beds 
for this pnri>ose should be so arranged as to receive only the 
morning or evening sun. It is of the greatest importance that 
the ground should be well drained, otherwise it will be impossible 
to raise good vegetables. The most reliable manure for general 
purposes ia well decomposed stable or barnyard manure. Manure 
from cows will suit best for light, sandy soilj horse manure for 
heavy, stift clay lands. For special purposes, Peruvian Guano, 
Blood Fertilizer, Eaw Bone, Cotton Seed Meal and other com- 
mercial manures may be employed with advantage. Where the 
land is very sandy, cotton seed meal has the most iastin^;^ effect. 
For quick growing crops, such as Melons, Cucumbers, etc., the 
Blood Fertilizer and Guano applied in the hills, is very good. 
Soap suds are good for Celery; it is astonisuing to i)erceive the 
difference in the size of those stalks which are watered every few 
days with the suds and others on the same ground, which are not. 
Wood ashes are best for Peas, either used as a top dressing when 
the peas just come out of the ground, or else sprinkled in the 
rows when planted. The New Orleans market gaideners raise as 
iine vegetables as can be i)roduced anywhere; in fact, some vari- 
eties cannot be excelled, and very few gardeners use anything 
but stable manure. 

Rotation ^of crops is another important item. Beets, 
Carrots and other roots should not be grown in succession on the 
same ground, but should be changed to those which grow above 
ground, such as Lettuce, Beans, Peas, etc. Good seed, good 
ground and good cultivation are essential iu order to raise good 
vegetables. When plants are up the ground should be stirred 
fiequently; weeds ought not to be suffered to go into seed, but 
should be destroyed as soon as they appear. Hoeing aud work- 
ing the young crops during dry weather is very beneficial, be- 



For the Southern States. 



19 



cause the weeds are then easily killed, 
will make it retain moisture better than 



and hoeing the ground, 
if it were left alone. 




wliiiiiipwi 



THE EOT BED. 



Owing to the open Winters in the South, hot beds are not so 
much used as in the Nortli, except to raise such tender plants as 
Egg-Plants, Tomatoes and Peppers. There is little forcing of 
vegetables done here, except as regards Cucumbers and Lettuce j 
and if we do not have any hard frosts the latter does better in the 
open ground than under glass. To make a hot bed is a very sim- 
ple thing. Any one who has the use of tools can make the wooden 
frame J the sashes may be obtained at any sash factory. I con- 
sider a wooden frame from five to six feet wide, and ten feet six 
inches long, a very good size. It should be at least six inches 
higher at the back than in the front, and covered by three sashes 
3^x5 feet. The manure ought not to be over one month old 5 
should be thrown together in a heap, and when commencing to 
heat, be worked over with a fork, and all the long and short ma- 
nure evenly mixed. In this State the ground is generally low, 
and to retain the heat of the manure for a longer time it is best 
to i)ut the manure on top of the ground — that is, make a bank 
two feet longer and two wider than the frame. Keep the edges 
straight and the corners firm when thrown up about eighteen 
inches, trample ihe manure down to six or eight inches, then put 
on another layer of eighteen inches and trample down again ; place 
thereon the frame and sash and fill in six inches of good earth. 
After about five days stir the ground to kill any weeds which may 
i|have come up, then sow the seeds. In Lower Louisiana the 



20 



Richard FrotsGlier''s Almanac and Garden Manual 



ground is tx)o wet to dig out eighteen inches deep and then throw 
in the manure and trample down as recommended in the ^orth. 
A few hard rains, such as we frequently have in winter, and the 
manure would become so soaked beneath the ground that the 
heat would be gone. Another advantage, when the frame is put 
above the ground is, that it will go down with the manure gradu- 
ally, and there remains always the same space between the glass 
and the ground. If the ground is dug out and the manure put 
into the frame, the ground will sink down so low after a short 
time that the sun will have little effect upon it, and plants will 
become spindly. 



SOWING SEEDS. 



Some seeds are sown at once where they are to remain and 
mature. Others are sown in seed beds and transplanted after- 
wards. Seeds should be covered according to their size, a cover- 
ing of earth twice the size of the seed is about the maximum. 
Some seeds, such as Beans, Corn and Peas, can be covered from 
one to two inches, and they will come up well. Here is a differ- 
ence again : Wrinkled Peas and Sugar Corn have to be covered 
lighter and more carefully than Marrowfat Peas or the common 
varieties of Corn. It depends upon the nature of the soil, season 
of the year^ etc. For instance, in heavy wet soil seeds have to 
be covered lighter than in sandy light ground. Seeds which are 
sown during summer in the open ground, such as Beets and Car- 
rots, should be soaked over night in water and rolled in ashes or 
plaster before sowing ; they will come up quicker. When they 
are sown in a seed bed, the ground should be light enough not to 
bake after a rain. Some varieties of seeds require shade when 
sown during the Summer, such as Cauliflower, Celery and Let- 
tuce. Care should be taken to have the shade at least three feet 
from the ground, and shade ouly after the sun has been on the 
bed for two or three hours, and remove again early in the after- 
noon, so the plants may become sturdy. If too much shaded they 
will be drawn up, long-legged, and not fit to set out in the open 
ground. The most successful cabbage-painters in this neighbor- 
hood sow their seed in the open ground, toward the end of July 
and during August, and give them no shade, but water and keep 
the ground moist from the day of sowing till the plants are trans- 
planted. Seed should be sown thinly in the seed bed. If plants 
come up too thickly they are apt to damp off. 

Lettuce seed should be sprouted during the hot months before 
sowing, according to directions given for June. 

To sow Turnips on a large scale during late summer and early 
fall months, the ground should be prepared in advance, and the 
seed sown just before or during a raiu. Small pieces of ground^ 



For tJie Southern States. 



21 



of course, can be sown at any time and watered afterwards. For 
covering" all kinds of s^eds a fork is preferable to a rake ; with 
either inipleraent care must be taken not to cover the seeds too 
deep. Beans, Peas and Corn are covered with the hoe. Some 
fine seeds, such as Thyme or Tobacco, are covered enough when 
pressed with the back of the spade to tlie ground. The seedsman 
is often blamed for selling seeds which have not come up, when 
the same are perfectly good, but, perhaps, through ignorance the 
party by whom they were sowrj phiced them too deep or too shal- 
low in the ground* or the ground may have been just moist 
enough to swell the seeds, and they failed to come up. At other 
times washing rains after sowing bt^at the ground and form a 
crust that the seeds are not able to penetrate; or if there is too 
much fresh manure in the ground it will burn the seed and destroy 
its vitality. 

Where seeds, such as Beans, Cucumbers, Melons and Squash, 
are planted before it is warm enough, they are very apt to rot if 
it rains. 




'''m^^^^ 



22 



Richard Frotseher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



The following Tables will be found useful to the 
Gardener, Farmer and Amateur. 



QUANTITY OF SEED USUALLY SOWN UPON AN ACRE. 



Beans, Dwarf, in drills, . . . li BnsLels. 

Beans, Pole, in hills, 10 to 12 Qts. 

Beets, in drills, 4 to 5 lbs. 

Broom Corn, in hills, 8 to 10 Qts. 

Buckwheat, 1 Bushel. 

Cabbage, in beds to transplant,. .1 lb. 

Carrots, in drills, 3 to 4 lbs. 

Chinese Sugar Cane, 12 Qts. 

Clover, Red, alone 12 to 15 lbs. 

Clover, "White, alone, 10 to 12 lbs. 

Clover, Lucerne or Alfalfa, 12 lbs. 

Corn, in hills, 8 to 10 Qts. 

Corn, for soiling 3 Bushels. 

Cucumber, in hills,.. = 2 lbs. 

Hemp, H Bushels. 

Mustard, broadcast - . . i Bushel. 

Melon, Musk, in hills 2 to 3 lbs. 

Melon, Water, in hills 3 to 4 lbs. 

Millet, broadcast 1 Bushel. 



Oats, broadcast 2 to 3 Bushels. 

Onion, in drills 5 to 6 lbs. 

Onion for Sets, in drills 20 lbs. 

Onion, Sets, in drills. .6to 12Bashels. 

Parsnip, in drills 4 to 6 4bs. 

Peas, in drills, H Bushels. 

Peas, broadcast —. 3 B ashels. 

Potato, (cut tubers,) ...... 10 Buslsels. 

Pumpkin, (in hills,) 4 to 6 lbs. 

Radish, in drills 8 to 10 lbs. 

Sage, in drills .8 to 10 lbs. 

Salsify, in drills, 8 to 10 lbs. 

Spinach, in drills 10 to 12 lbs. 

Squash, (bush var.') iu hills, 4 to G lbs. 
Squash, (ruu'ing " ) in hills, 3 to 4 lbs. 

Tomato, to transplant, i lb 

Turnip, iu drills -j to 2 lbs. 

Turnip, broadcast lto2 lbs. 



QUANTITY OF SEEDS REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN NUMBER OF PLANTS. 



Number of Hills or Lengtli of Drills : 

Asparagus 1 oz to 60 feet of drill. 

Beet 1 " '*■ 50 " " " 

Beans, Dwarf,. 1 Qt. to 100 " " " 

Beans, Pole. 1 Qr. to 150 hills. 

Carrot 1 oz to lOO feet of drill. 

Cucumber 1 oz to 75 hills. 

Corn 1 Qt. to 200 hills. 

Endive .1 oz to 100 feet of drill. 

Leek 1 " " 100 " " " 

Melon, Water 1 oz to 30 hills. 

Melon, Musk 1 ■' "60 " 

Okra 1 oz to 40 feet of drill. 

Ouion 1 " •' 100 " " '' 

Onion, Sets, small, 1 Qt to 40 ft of drill. 
Parsley ... 1 oz to 125 feet of drill. 

Note. — The above calculations are 
the Summer months, twice the quantity 
amount of plants. 



Nnmber of Hills or Length of Drills : 

Parsnip 1 oz to 200 feet of drill. 

Peas 1 Quart to 100 feet of drill. 

Pumpkin I oz to 40 hills. 

Radish 1 oz to 100 feet of drill. 

Salsify 1 " " 70 " '■ '• 

Spina<;h, 1 " '' lOO " '■ " 

Squash ... 1 oz to 75 hills. 

Turnip 1 oz to 150 fe»-t of drill, 

Cabbage 1 oz to 2000 plants. 

Califlower 1 " " 2000 

Celery 1 " '• 3000 

Ega:PJan73 1 '• " 1000 

Lettuce 1 " " 3000 " 

Peppi^.r 1 '• " 1000 

Tomato 1 " " 1500 " 

made for the Spring; if sown during 
of seed will be reqtiirfd for the same 



Table Showing Amonnt of Several Varieties of G-rass Seed Ifecessary for au 
Acre, and the IlTiimber of Pounds in a Bushel. 



No. of lbs. Quantity for 
to Bushel. One Acre. 



Barley 48 

Blue Grass 14 

Oi chard Grass 14 

Red Top Grass 14 

Hungarian Grass 48 



2 Bush. 
2 " 
2 " 
2 " 
1 '' 



No. of lbs. Quantity for 

to Bu.sliel. One Aci'e. 

Millet, German .50 f Basb. 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass, 12 5 " 

Rescue Grass, 14 - " 

Timothy 45 f " 

Italian Rye Grass 20 3 " 



r^ 



For the Sotitliern States. 



23 



Descriptive Catalogue of Vegetable Seeds. 

ARTICHOKE. 

Artichaut (Fr.), Artisohoke (Cxer.), Alcachofa ^Sp.). 



\~. 



^ V 



a 



<'-\ . 




Green Globe Articboke. 

Larg'e Globe. This is a very popular vegetable m the 
Soutii, aud much esteemed by the aative as well as the foreign 
population from the South of Europe. It is extensively culti- 
vated for the New Orleans market. It is best propagated from 
suckers which come up around the large plants. Take them off 
during the fall and early winter months; plant them four feet 
a])art each way. Every fall the ground should be manured and 
spaded or plowed between them. If planted by seed, sow them 
in drills during winter or early spring, three inches apart and one 
foot from row to row; cover with about one-half incli of earth. 
The following fall the plants can be transplanted and cultivated 
as recommended above. 

ASPARAGUS. 

AsPERGE (Fr.), Spargel (Ger.), Esparagos (Sp.). 

Piiri>le Top. The Asparagus is not extensively cultivated 
in the South ; not that it is not liked well enough, but from the 
fact that it does not succeed as well as in more I^orthern latti- 
tud< s. It seems that it is short lived, the roots giving out soon 
or throwing up very small shoots. 

The ground should be well manured and prepared before 
either the roots or seeds are planted. For this climate the sowing 
of seed is preferable, Eoots are generally imported from the 
North, and I have found that the roots raised here, one year old, 
are as strong as those received from the North three years old. 
Plant the seed in early spring. Soak overnight in water j plant in 



24 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

rows, or rather bills, one foot apart and two feet between 5 put from 
four to five seeds in each hill; when well up thin out to two plaiits. 
The following winter, when the stalks are cut off', cover with a 
heavy coat of well rotted manure and a sprinkling of salt ; fish- 
brine will answer the same purpose. In the spring fork in the 
manure between the rows and keep clean of weeds. The same 
treatment should be repeated every year. The bed should not be 
cut before being three years establisheii. Care must be taken not 
to cut the stalks too soon in the fall of the year — not until we liave 
had a frost.- If cut before it will cause the roots to throw up 
young shoots, which will weaken them. 

BUSH BEANS. 

CULTURE. 
Place in rows eighteen inches apart. Plant from end of Feb- 
ruary; and for succession every two or three weeks to May. Dur- 
ing June and July Bush Beans planted in this latitude will not 
produce much. August and September are good months in which 
to plant again; they will produce abundantly till killed by the 
frost. Do not cover the seeds more than two inches. 

POLE BEANS. 

Lima Beans should not be planted before the ground has be- 
come warm in spring. Strong poles ought to be set in the ground 
from four to six feet apart, and the ground drawn around them 
before the setd is planted. It is always best to plant after a rain 
and with the eye of the bean down. The other varietieji can be 
planted fiat, and not more than three to four feet ap.irt, and hilled 
after they are u^). Do not cover the seeds more than t'AO inches; 
one inch is enough for the Southern Prolific. 

BE AN S — (DWARF, SNAP OR BUSH.) 

Haiucots (Fr.), Bohne (G^r.), Fkijolenano (Sp.)- 



Extra Eakly Six Weeks, or New- 
ingtoii WtMider. 
■ Early Valentine Red Speckled* 
i^ARLY Mohawk Six Weeks. 
Ah^^AR-LY Yellow Six Weeks. 



A vWhite Kidney. 

Red Speckled French. 

Early China Red-Eye. 
s-^ED Kidney. 
-.*v Dwarf Golden Wax (ue -v). 



Extra Early Six Weeks, or Newiiigton Wonder, is 
^very early, but the pods are small and round. Good for family 
use. 

Early Valentine, one of the best varieties ; pods round, 
tender and quite productive 5 uot much j)lanted for the market. 

Early Moliawk Six Weeks. This is a long podded 
variety, and very hardy. It is used to a large extent for the 
market for the flist planting; very productive. 

Early Yellow Six Weeks.' This is the most popular 
sort among iiiarkel-gardoners. Pods flat and long; a very good 
bearer, 

German Dwarf Wax. A new variety which is unsur- 
passed as a snap bean. Pods are of a wax color and hijve no 
strings; quite productive. Has come into general cultivation; 
cannot be too highly recommended. 



For the Southern States. 



25 



White Kidney. A good strong- growing variety, uot much 
planted. 

Red Speckled French is another strong growing variety, 
planted a good deal for the New Orleans market as a second crop, 
being about ten days later than the Mohawk and Yellow Six 
Weeks. It is hardy and produotiv^e. 

Early China Ked-Eye. Early and of good quality, but 
not very popular. 

Ked Kidney. This variety is largely planted for the New 
Orleans market. It is a coarse growing variety, and much used 
for shelling when the pods turn yellow, so that the beans are well 
developed but soft yet. 

Dwarf Golden Wax. (New.) A dwarf, variety with flat 
pods, longer than the Dwarf German Wax^ entirely stringlessj seed 
white, mottled with purplish red. This variety will come into 
general cultivation, and will in time take the place of the black 
seeded Wax, being earlier and more productive. 

BEANS —POLE OR RUNNING. 

Haricots a Rames (Fr.), Stangen Bohnen (Ger.), FkijolYastago (Span.) 



^Large Lima. 

♦ Carolina or Sewee. 
Horticultural or Wren'^ 
vDuTCH Case Knife. 



Egg. 



German Wax or Butter. 
vSouTHERN Prolific. 
vCrease Back. 



Larg'e Lima. A well known and excellent variety. It is 
the best shell bean known. Should have rich ground, and plenty 
room to grow. 

Carolina or Sewee. A variety similar to the Lima 5 the 
only diflerence is, the seeds and pods are smaller. It is generally 
cultivated, being more pioductiv^e than the Large Lima. 

Horticultural or Wren's Eg-g-, does not grow ve^ry 
strong, bears well, pods about six inches long, which are round- 
ish and very tender. 

Dutcli Case Knife. A very good pole bean ; it is early ; 
pods broad and long, somewhat turned towards the end. 

Grernian Wax, This is a fine variety, and has the same 
good qualities as the German Dwarf Wax. Pods have a waxy 
appearance 5 very succulent and tender. 

Southern Prolific. No variety will continue longer in 
bearing than this. It stands the heat of the summer better than 
any other, and is planted to succeed the other kinds. It is a 
very strong grower ; pods about seven inches long, flat; seeds 
dark yellow or rather light brown. It is the standard variety for 
the New Orleans market for late spring and summer. 

Crease Back. A variety of Pole Bean which has been cul- 
tivated in the South for a long time, but has never coDie into the 
trade. It is an excellent bean, earlier than the "Southern Pro- 
lific;" pods round, with a crease in the back, from which the 
name. It is a good grower, bears abundantly, and if shipped will 
keep better than most other kinds. I had some grown for me 
this season and offer a limited supply. 
2 



26 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanae and Garden Manual 



ENGLISH BEANS. 

Feve de Marais (Fr.), Puff Bohne (Ger.), Haba Comun (Sp.) 

Broad Windsor. Not so much cultivated here as in some 
parts of Europe. It is much liked by the people of the Southern 
part of Europe. Ought to be planted during November ; as if 
planted in the spring they will not produce much. 

BEETS. 

Betrave (Fr.), Runkelruebe (Ger.), Remola.cha (Sp.) 



Extra Early or Bassano. 
Simon's Early Ked Turnip. 
Early Blood Turnip. 
Long Blood. 
Half Long Blood. 



Egyptian Red Turnip. 
Long Red Mangel Wurtzel. 
White French Sugar. 
Silver or Swiss Chard. 



Culture, 



The ground for beets should be rich and well spaded or plow- 
ed. Sow in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart, cover the seed 
about one inch deep. Thin them out when about a month old to 
four or six inches apart. In this latitude beets are sown from 
January till the end of April, and from the middle of July till 
the middle of November^ in fact, some market-gardeners sow 
some every month in the year. In the summer and fall it is well 
to soak the seeds over night, and roll in plaster before sowing. 

Extra Early or Bassano, is the earliest variety, but not 
popular on account of its color, which is almost white when 
boiled. Eariiness is not of so much value here, where there are 
beets sown and brought to the market the whole year round. In 
the North it is different, where the first crop of beets in the mar- 
ket in spring will bring a better price than the varieties which 
mature later. 





Simon's Early Red Turnip Beet. 



Early Blood Tarnip Beet. 



Sliiioii's Early Red Turnip. This is earlier than the 
Blood Turnip, smooth skin and of light red color, planted a good 
deal by the market-gardeners about New Orleans. 



For the /Southern States. 



27 



Early Blood Turnip. The most popular varietj for mar- 
ket purposes as well as family use. It is of a dark red color, 
and very tender. 

Long' Blood, is not quite so tender as the foregoing variety ; 
it is not planted at all for the market, and very little for family 
use. In the North it is chiefly planted for winter use ; here we 
have Turnip Beets the whole winter from the garden ; therefore 
it has not the same value. 

Half Long- Blood. A very dark red variety of a half 
long shape ; a good variety, but not much esteemed. 





Egyptian Red Turnip Beet. White French Sugar Beet, 

Egyptian Red Turnip. This is a new variety sent out 
by Benary some years ago. It is very early, tender, deep red 
and of Turnip shape. Leaves of this variety are smaller than on 
others. The seeds are also much smaller. I recommend it and 
consider it an acquisition. 

Long: Red Mangel Wurtzel, 
This is raised for stock ; it grows to a 
large size. Here in the South where 
_^ stock is not stabled during the winter, 
'; the raising of root crops is much ne- 
glected. Being very profitable for 
their food it ought to be more culti- 
vated. 

White French Sngar, is used 
the same as the foregoing ; not much 
Silver Beet or Swiss Chard. Planted. 




28 Bicliard Frotscher'^s Almanac and Oar den Mamial 

Silver Beet or StvIss Cliard. This variety is cultivated 
for its lar^e, succulent leaves, which are used for the same pur- 
poses as Spinach. It is very popular iu the New Orleans market. 

BORECOLE OR CURLED KALE, 

Chou-yert (Fr.), Gruener Kohl (Ger,), Bretoin' (Sp ) 

Dwarf Gerniaii Greens. ^ 

A vegetable highly esteemed in northern part of Europe, 
but very little cultivated in this country. It requires frost to 
make it good for the table. Treated the same as Cabbage, 

BROCCOLI. 

Chou Brocoli (Fr.), Brocoli Spargel-Kohl (Ger.), Broculi (Sp.) 

Purple Cape. 

Eesembles the Cauliflower, but not forming such compact 
heads, and not quite so white, being of a greenish cast. We 
raise such fine Cauliflower here that very little Broccoli is raised. 

The Purple Cape is the most desirable variety ; cultivated 
the same as Half Early Cauliflower; further North than New Or- 
leans, where Cauliflower does not succeed, the Broccoli may be 
substituted, being more hardj-. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 

Chou de Bruxelles (Fr.), Rosex or Sprossex Kohl (Ger.) 
Bretox i>e Bruselas (Sp.) 




Brussels Sprouts. 
A vegetable cultivated the same as the cabbage, but very 
little known here. The small heads which appear along the up- 



VEarly York. 
^-^ARLY Large York. 
Early Sugar Loaf. 
i&ARLY Large Oxheart. 

7 fcrEARLY WiNXINGSTADT. 

j^ERSEY Wakefield. 
^I^ARLY Flat Dutch. 
cj^ARGE Flat Brunswick. 



For the Southern States. 



29 



per part of the stalk between the leaves, make a fine dish when 
well prepared. 

CABBAGE. 

Chou Pomme (Fr.), Kopfkohl (Ger.), Repollo (Sp.) 



i^-FoTLER's Improved Brunswick. 
u?>ARGE Late Drumhead. 
/Superior Late Flat Dutch. 
i>JiED Dutch (for Pickling.) 
^REEN Globe Savoy. 
pEarly Dwarf Savoy. 
(^Drumhead Savoy. 
^t. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 



Culture. 



Cabbage requires a stronf]^, good soil, and should be heavily 
manured. To raise large Cabbage without good soil, and without 
working the plants well, is an impossibility. Cabbage is sown 
here almost in every mouth of the year, but the seed for a main 
crop should be sown from July to September. Some sovv earlier, 
but July is time enough. For a succession, seed can be sown till 
November. Early varieties are sown during winter and early 
spring. Cabbage is a very important crop and one of the best 
paying for the market-gardener. It requires more work and at- 
tention than most people are willing to give, to raise cabbage 
plants during the months of July and August. I have found, by 
careful observation, that plants raised in August are the surest 
to head here. The most successful gardeners in raising cabbage 
plants, sow the seeds thinly in seed-beds, and water several times 
during the day ; in fact the seed-bed never is allowed to get dry 
from the sowing of the seed till large enough to transplant. 
There is no danger in doing this of scalding the plants, as manv 
would suppose 5 but just the reverse; the plants thrive well, and 
so treated will be less liable to be attacked by the cabbage-fly, as 
they are too often disturbed during the day. 

Early York. This is an early variety, but very little grown 
here, except for family use, As we have cabbage heading up 
almost the whole year, it has not the same value as in Northern 
climates, where the first cabbage in spring brings a good price. 

Large York. About two to three weeks later than the 
above, forming hard heads ; not grown for the market. Kecom- 
mended for family use. 

Early Siig*ar Loaf. Another pointed variety, with spoon 
shaped leaves; sown in early spring for an earl.y summer Cab- 
bage. 

Early Large Oxheart. An excellent variety, which is 
later than the Large York, and well adapted for sowing in fall or 
early spring. 

Early Wiiining-stadt. This is a very fine solid heading 
variety ; pointed and of good size, of the same season as the Ox- 
heart. It is very good for family use. It does not suit the mar- 
ket, as no pointed cabbage can be sold to any advantage in the 
New Orleans market. 



30 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden 21anual 




Saperior Large Flat Dutch. 



For the Southern States. 



31 




Drumhead Savoy. 



St. Denis Chon Bonneuil. 



Jersey Wakefield. Very popular in the North, but little 
planted here. It is of medium size and heads up well. 

Early Flat Dutch. An intermediate variety between the 
early pointed and late varieties. It is not, on an average, as 
heavy as the Oxheart or Winningstadt, but if raised for the mar- 
ket more salable on account of being flat. Yery good variety for 
family use. 

Larg'e Flat BriinsTvick. This is a late German variety, 
introduced by me about fourteen years ago. It is an excellent 
variety, and when well headed up the shape of it is a true type of 
a Premium Flat Dutch Cabbage. It requires very rich ground, 
and should be sown early, as it is a little more susceptible of frost 
than the Superior Flat Dutch. It is well adapted for shipping, 
being very hard and does not wilt so quick as others. At Fre- 
nier, along the Jackson Railroad, this is the kind principally 
planted, and is preferred over all other varieties. The people 
living there plant nothing else except cabbage for the New Or- 
leans market, and have tried nearly all highly recommended vari- 
eties, and this is their choice. 

Fotler's Improved Brunswick. This is similar to the 
Large Flat Brunswick, but somewhat later and not so regular in 
shape. The seed of this kind being raised North, renders the 
plants harder than the German Brunswick. 

Larg-e Late Drumhead. Fine large variety ; should be 
sown early in the fall for wiuter, or during December and January 
for late spring use^ it will stand more cold weather than the fore- 
going variety. 

Superior Late Flat Dutch. This is the most popular 



32 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

variety for winter cabbage, and cultivated by almost every gar- 
dener who plants for the !N"ew Orleans market. 3Iy stock is of 
superior quality, and I venture to say that seventy -five per cent, 
of all cabbage sold in the Xew Orleans market are of seeds which 
have been obtained Irom my store. During winter and spring 
specimens, which are brought as samples to my establishment, 
weighing from fifteen to twenty-five pounds, cau be frequently 
seen. In regard to the time of planting see remarks under head 
of Cabbage, in the directions for planting for July. I have tried 
seed of the Flat Dutch from different growers, but have found 
none yet to equal the stock I have been selling for years, 

Ked Diitcli. 2Iostly used for pickling or salads. Very 
little cultivated. 

Green Globe Savoy. Medium sized heads, not very hard, 
but all the leaves can be used. This and the following varieties 
are of fine flavor, and preferred by many over the other varieties. 

Early D\\'arf Savoy. Heads rather small but solid; leaves 
very curled and succulent*, of a dark green color. Very fine for 
family garden. 

Drumlieacl Savoy. Leaves are wrinkled, but not quite so 
much as the two foregoing kinds. It grows to a good size with 
large roundish heads. 

St. Denis or Cliou Bonneiiil. This is a very popular 
French variety for the market as well as family garden. It grows 
to a large size, but requires a good season and good ground to 
make it head well. It should be sown during August and Sep- 
tember for winter use. and in December and January for late 
spiiug nse. Some market gardeners plant this variety in prefer- 
ence to any other, and some of the finest heads of cabbage otiered 
in this market are of this variety. 

CAULIFLOWER. 

Choufleur CFr.), BLrMZXKOHL (,Ger.), Colifloe (Sp.). 



Extra Early Paris. 
Half Early Paris. 
Large Asiatic. 
Early Erfurt. 



Le XoRMA^'Ds (short stemmed). 
Early' Italian Giant. 
Late Italian Giant. 
Imperial (New). 

This is one of the finest vegetables grown, and succeeds well 
in the neighborhood of Xew Orleans. Large quantities are raised 
on the sea coast in the neighborhood of Barataria Bay. The two 
Italian varieties are of excellent quality, growing to a large size, 
and are considered hardier than the German and French varie- 
ties. I have had specimens brought to the store, raised from seed 
obtained from me, -weighing sixteen pounds. The ground for 
planting Caulifiowers should be very rich. They thrive best in 
rich sandy soil, and require plenty of moisture during the forma- 
tion of the head. The Italian varieties should be sown from 
April tillJuly : the latter month and June is the best time to sow 
the Early Giant. During August, September and October the 
LeXormands, Half Early Paris, Asiatic and Erfurt, can W, sown. 
The Half Early Paris is very popular, but the other varieties are 
just as good, and the Asiatic is a little hardier th«an the rest. For 



For the Southern States. 



33 



spring crop the Italian kinds do not answer, but the early French 
and German varieties can be sown at the end of December and 
during January^ in a bed protected from frost, and may be trans- 
planted during February and as late as March, into the open 
ground. If we have a favorable season and not too dry, they will 
be very fine -, but if the heat sets in soon the flowers will not 
obtain the same size as those obtained from seeds sown in fall, 
and which head during December and January. 

Extra Early Paris, the earliest variety, heads small ; very 
tender. 

Half Early Paris. The most popular in the New Orleans 
market. Heads ot good size, white and compact. 




Large Asiatic Cauliflower. 

Large Asiatic similar to the above, but grows stronger, 
and is hardier. Quite a favorite variety with those who know it. 

Early Erfiu't. This variety is of more dwarfish growth 
than the two former. Heads white and of good size. Heads with 
certainty. 




Le Normands short stemmed Cauliflower. 



34 



Richard Frotsc]ier''s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Le ]^oriiiaiicls is a French variety, and largely cultivated 
here. It stands more dry wf^atber than the other varieties, and 
has large and pure white heads. Not so popular as the Half 
Early Paris in this marker, but there is no good reason why it 
should not be, as it is an excellent variety in every respect; stands 
the heat better than arjy other. 




Early Italian Giant Cauliflower. 

Early Italian Giant. Very large fine sort, not quite so 
late as the late Italian, and almost as large. Thie heads are quite 
large, white and compact, and of delicious flavor. Kecommend it 
to all who have not tried it. When sown at the proper season it 
will head with certainty, and will not fail to give satisfaction. 

Lfate Italian Giant. This is the largest of all the Cauli- 
flowers, It is grown to a considerable extent in the neighborhood 
of New Orleans, It is very large and compact; should not be 
sown later than June, as it takes from seven to nine months be- 
fore it heads. 

Imperial. (New.) A variety from France very sim.ilar to 
the Le Normands, perhaps a little earlier. 

CARROT. 

Garotte (Fr.).. Moehre or Gelbe Ruebe (Ger.), Zanahoria (Sp.). 



Earlt Scarlet Horn. 
Half Long Scarlet French. 
Improved Long Orange. 



Long Red, without core. 
St. Velerie. 
Hale Long Luc 



Requires a sandy loam, well manured, and deeply spaded up. 
Should be sown iu drills ten to twelve inches apart, so the plants 



For the Southern States. 



35 



can be worked after they are up. Gardeners here generally sow 
them broadcast, and often the roots are small from being crowded 
too much together. 

Early Scarlet Horn. A short stump -rooted variety, of 
medium size, very early and of fine flavor. Not cultivated for 
the market. 

Half Long- French Scarlet. This is the most popular 
variety, and extensively grown for the market, as well as for 
family use. It is a little later than the Early Horn, but much 
larger 5 bright scarlet in color, and of fine flavor. 

Half liOng* !Luc. This is a new variety from France. It 
is as early as any previously mentioned, but stump-rooted and 
larger. It is very smooth and of a fine color. 

Improved Long" Orange. This is an old variety, roots 
long and of deep orange color. It is not much cultivated in this 
section, and the flavor is not so fine as that of the two preceding 
kinds. Valuable for field culture. 

Long Ked without core. A new variety from France, which 
is of cylindrical shape, very smooth, bright scarlet color, and of 
fine flavor J has no heart or core. It is not quite so early as the 
Half Long, but more productive. Consider it a first class variety 
for the table, and one that will come into general cultivation when 
better known. 




Early Scarlet Horn Carrot. Half Long Luc Carrot. 



Half Long French 
Scarlet Carrot. 



36 Bichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 





Carrot, Long Red, -vvitliout core. 



St. Valerie. A uew variety from France, bright red in 

color 5 a little larger and loDger than the Half Long French, and : 

stronger in leaves. This is one of the finest carrots, and will , 

take the place of the Half Long in the course of time. It is j 

very smooth. Could not obtain enough seed the past season, 1 
hut expect a full supply this year. 

CELERY, 

Celeri (Fr.), Sellerie (G^r.), Apio (Sp.)- 



Large White Solid. 
Saxdrisgham's Dwarf White. 



TURNIP-EOOTED. 

Dwarf Large iJiBBED. (New.) 
Cutting. 



For the Southern States. 



37 




Large White Solid Celery. 



,^ Sow iQ May and June for 
early transplanting, and in 
August and September for a 
later crop. Sow thinly and 
shade during the hot months. 
Transplant when the plants 
are six inches high, into 
trenches about four inches 
deep, nine wide, and two and 
a half feet apart, made very 
rich by digging in rotten ma- 
nure. Plants should be from 
six to eight inches apart. 
When planted out during the 
hot months, the trenches re- 
quire to be shaded, which is 
generally done by spreading 
cotton cloth over them j lan- 
tanias will answer the same 
purpose. Celery requires plen- 
ty of moisture, and watering 
with soapsuds, or liquid ma- 
nure, will benefit the plants a 
great deal. When tall enough 
it should be earthed up to 
blanch to make it fit for the 
table. 

Large Wliite Solid is 

the variety mostly grown. Is 
white, solid and crisp. 




Celeriac, or Tarnip-Eooted Celery. 



38 Richard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 




Saudringliaiii D w a r f 
White. This is a new variety 
of excellent quality, somewhat 
taller tban the Incomparable 
Dwarf. It has become very 
popular with the market gar- 
deners. 

C e 1 e r i a c , or Turnip - 
rooted Celery, is very popu- 
lar in some parts ot Europe, 
but hardly cultivated here. It 
should be sown in the fall of 
the year^ and transplanted six 
inches apart, in rows one foot 
apart. When the roots have 
obtained a good size, they are 
boiled, scraped off, sliced and 
dressed with vinegar, etc., as a 
salad. 

Dwarf Large Ribbed. 

This kind has been brought 
here during the past year from 
France. It is short, but very 
thick-ribbed, solid and of fine 
flavor. 

Dwarf Large Ribbed (new). Celery foriSoup. This is 

sown in the spring of the year, broad-cast, to be used for season- 
ing, the same as Parsley. 

CHERVIL. 

Cerfeuil (Fr.), Kerbelkraut (Ger.) 

An aromatic plant used a good deal for seasoning, especially 
in oyster soup, and is often cut between Lettuce when served as 
a salad. In the North this vegetable is very little known, but in 
this section there is hardly a garden where it is not found. Sow 
broad-cast during fall for winter and spring, and in January and 
February for summer use. 

COLLARDS. 

A kind of Cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are 
used the same as other Cabbage. Not popular as in former years, 
and very little planted. 

CORN SALAD. 

Mache, Doucet (Fr.), Acker Salat (Ger.), Yalertana (Sp.) 

Broad4eaved Corn Salad is the variety generally cultivated. 
It is used as a Salad during the winter and early spring months. 
Should be sown broad-cas.t during fall and winter, or in drills 
nine inches apart. 



For the Southern States. 



39 



CORN.— INDIAN. 

Mais (Fr,.) Welschkorn (Ger.)? Maiz (Sp.) 



/extra Eauly Dwarf Sugar. 
y^DAM's Extra Early, 
vearly Sugar or Sweet, 
^^towel's Evergreen Sugar. 



Golden Dent Gourd Seei>. 
Early Yellow Canada. 
Large "White Flint. 
Blunt's Prolific, Field. (New. ) 



Plant iu hills about three feet apart, drop four to five seeds 
and thin out to two or three. Where the ground is strong the 
Adam's Extra Early and Crosby's Sugar can be planted in hills 
two and a half feet apart, as these two varieties are more dwarf- 
ish than the other varieties. Plant for a succession from Febru- 
ary till June. 



•j^ 




Extra Early Sugar Corn. Early Sugar or New England Corn. 



Evergreen Sugar Corn. 



Extra Early or Crosby's Dwarf Sugar. This is a 
very early variety and of excellent quality. Ears small but very 
tender. It is not so extensively planted as it deserves to be. 

Adam's Extra Early, the most popular variety with mar- 
ket-gardeners for first planting. It has no fine table qualities, 
but as it grows to a good size, and is matured in about forty days 
from time of planting, it meets with ready sale in the market, 
and for these reasons gardeners prefer it. 

Early Sugar or New England. A long eight-rowed 
variety, which succeeds the Extra Early kinds. Desirable va- 
riety. 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. This is the best of all Su- 
gar Corn. It is not an early Corn, but the ears are of large size, 



40 Bicliard Frotscliers Almanac and Garden Manual 

and are well filled. It remains ^reen longer than any other Ta- 
riety. and is quite productive. The cultivation of this excellent 
cereal, as well as all other Sugar Corn is mnch neglected, yet 
why people will plant common field-corn for table use, consider- 
ing size instead of quality. I cannot understand. 

Goldeu Dent Goiu'd Seed. A field variety which is 
very jjroductive at the North. It makes very fine Corn Soath. 
but has to be planted here several years in succession before it 
attains perfection, as during the first year the ears are not well 
covered by the husk, as it is the case with all Northern varieties. 
When selected and planted here for a few years, it becomes ac- 
climated and makes an excellent Corn with large, fine ears, grain 
deep and cob of medium sizp. 

Early Yellovr Canada. A long, eight-rowed variety. It 
is very early and is planted in both field and garden. 

iarg-e "SVlilte Flint. A very popular variety with gar- 
deners and amateurs. It is planted here for table use principally, 
but like the Golden Dent makes an excellent variety for field cul- 
ture after it has been planted here for two or three vears. 

Blunt'8 Prolific Field Com. (Xew.) This is a very 
excellent variety, either tor the field or for the table. It is very 
prolific, producing from four to six ears of corn. They are of 
medium size, but well tilled and heavy. It is second early. 

CRESS. 

Cressox (Fr.). Keesse (CTer.). Beero (Sp.) 

Used for salad during winter and spring, Sow broad-cast or 
in drills six inches apart. 

Curled or Pepper Grass, ^s'ot much used in this section. 

Broad-leaA*ed. This variety is extensively cultivated for 
the market. It is sown from early fall to late spring, The leaves 
resemble Water Cress: a variety which does not succeed well 
he'e. Is considered a very wholesome dish. 

CUCUMBER 

CoxcoMBRE ^Ft.), Gueke (Ger.); Pepino (Sp.) 

Impruvet) Eaely White Spent:. Early Cluster. 

Earlt Fraale. ; Gheekix OR Burr (for pickling.) 

LoxG- Green Turkey. j 

Cucumbers need rich soil. Plant in hills from three to four 
feet apart : the hills should be made rich with well decomposed 
manure, and eight to ten seeds should be planted in each hill, and 
covered about one-half inch deep ; when well up thin out to four 
l^lants in the hill. Hoe between the hills till the vines meet. 
When the spring is dry the i)lants have to be watered, else they 
do not keep in bearing long. They can be i)lanted from March 
till July. A great many cucumbers are planted here in February, 
or even sooner, and are protected by small boxes with a i3ane of 
glass on top. These boxes are removed during the day. and put 
back in the evening. When days are cloudy and cold, the plants 
are kept covered. 



For the Southern States. 



41 




Improved Early White Spine. 

This is the most popular variety. It 

is of medium size, 

light green, covered 

, . ^ . with white spines, 
Improved Early White Spme. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^j^.^^ 

when ripe. The best variety for shipping. Of 
late years it is used by most gardeners for forc- 
ing as well as out-door culture. It is very pro- 
ductive. 

Early Frame. Another early variety, 
but not so popular as the foregoing kind. It is 
deep green in color, but turns yellow veryquick- 
ly^ therefore gardeners do not plant it much. 
Long* Green Tnrkey. A long variety, 
attaining a length of from fifteen to eighteen 
inches when well grown. Very fine and pro- 
ductive. 

Early Cluster. Early, short and prick- 
ly, and bears in clusters. 





Early Frame. 




Early Cluster. West India Gherkin. 

West India Gherkin. This is an oval variety, small in 
size. It is used for pickling when young and tender. When 
grown to its full size it can be stewed with meat. In fact this is 
the only use made of it about Kew Orleans. 

EGG-PLANT- 

AuBERGiNE (Fr.), EiERPFLANZE (Ger.), Beeengena (Sp.) 

The seed should be sown in hot-beds in the early part of Jan- 
uary. When a couple of inches high they should be transplanted 
into another frame, so that the plants may become strong and 
robust. When warm enough, generally during March, the i^lauts 
can be placed in the open ground, about two and a half feet apart. 
This vegetable is very popular in the South, and extensively cul- 
tivated. 

Large Purlpe or New Orleans Market. This is the 
only kind grown here; it is large, oval in shape and of a dark 
purple color, and very productive. Southern grown seed of this, 
3 



42 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Large Parple Eggplant. 

as of a good many other tropical or sub-tropical vegetables, is 
preferable to Northern seed, as it will germinate more readily, 
and the plant will lasc longer during the hot season. 



ENDIVE. 



Chicoree (Fr.), Exdiven (Ger.), Exdibia (Sp.) 

K; a salad plant which is very popular and much cultivated for 
the market, piincipally for summer use. It can be sown in drills 
a foot apart, and when the plants are well up thinned out till 
about eight inches apart. Or it can be sown broad-cnst thinly 
and transplanted the same as Lettuce. When the leaves are 
large enough, say about eight inches long, tie them up for blanch- 
ing, to make them tit for the table. This can only be done in dry 
weather, otherwise the leaves are apt to rot. For summer use do 
not sow before the end of March, as, if sown sooner, tie plants 
will run into seed very 
early. Sow for a succes- 
sion during the spring 
and summer months. 
For winter use sow in 
September and October. 
Green Ciuled, is 
the most desirable kind, 
as it bears more heat 
than the following sort, 
and the favorite market 

variety. Green Curled Endive 

Extra Fine Cnrlecl, does not grow quite so large as the 
foregoing, and is more apt to decay, when there is a wet summer. 
Better adapted for winter. 

Broad-leaved or Escarolle, makes a fine salad when 
well grown and blanched, especially for summer. 




For the Southern States. 



43 



KOHL-RABI, OR TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE. 

Chou Navet (Fr.), Kohl-Rabi (Ger.), Col de Nabo (Sp.) 

This vegetable is very popular with the European population 
of this City, and largely cultivated here. It Is used for soups, or 
prepared in the same manner as Cauliflower. For late fall and 
winter use it should be sown 
from the end of July till the 
middle of October; for spring 
use, during Jauuary and Feb- 
ruary. When the young 
plants are one month old 
transplant them in rows one 
foot apart, and about the 
same distance in the rows. 
They also grow finely if sown 
broad-cast and thinned out 
when young, so that the plants 
are not too crowded; or they 
may be sown in drills and cul- 
tivated the same as Ruta Ba- 
gas. 

Early Wiiite Vienna, 
the finest variety of all, and 
the only kind I keep. It is 
early, forms a smooth bulb, 
and has few small leaves. 
The so-called larg-e White or 
Green is not desirable. 




Early White Vienna Kohl-rabi. 



LEEK. 

PoiREAu (Fr.), Lauch (Ger.), Puero (Sp.) 

A species of Onion, highly esteemed for flavoring soups. 
Should be sown broad-cast and transplanted, when about six to 
eight inches high, into rows a foot apart and six inches apart in 
the rows. Should be planted at least four inches deep. They 
require to be well cultivated in order to insure large roots. Sow 
in October for winter and spring use, and in January and Feb- 
ruary for summer. 

Lar^e London Flag, is the most desirable kind, and that 
most generally grown. 

Large Carentan. This is a new French variety which 
grows to a very large size. 

LETTUCE. 

Laitue (Fr.), Lattich (Ger.), Lechuga (Sp.) 

Early Cabbage or White Butter- 
head. 
Improved Royal CxVbbage. 
Brown Dutch Cabbage. 
Drumhead Cabbage. 

Lettuce is sown here during the whole year by the market- 
gardener. Of course it takes a good deal of labor to produce 



White Paris Coss. 
Large India Curled. 

PERPIGNAISr. 

Improved Large Passion. 



44 



Ricliard Frotsclier^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



this vegetable during our hot summer months. For directions 
how to sprout the seed during that time, see ''Work for June." 
The richer and better the ground the larger the head vrili be. 
1^0 finer Lettuce are grown anywhere than in IS'ew Orleans daring 
fall and Spring. The seed should be sown broadcast, and, when 
large enough, planted out in rows a foot apart, and from eight to 
ten inches apart in the rows. Some kinds grow larger than 
others, for instance Butterhead will not require as much space as 
Drumhead or Perpignan. 

Early Cabbage or T\liite But- 
ter. An'early variety forming a solid 
head, but not quite so large as some 
others. It is the best kind for family use, 
to sow during fall and early spring, as it 
is very early and of good flavor. 



Improved Royal Cabbage Lettuce. 






White Paris Coss Lettuce. Perpignan Lettuce. 

ImproTecl Royal Cabbage, This is the most popular 
variety in this State." Heads light green, of large size, and about 
two weeks later than the White Butter. It is very tender and 
crisp, can be sown later in the spring than the foregoing kind, 
and does not run into seed so quickly. 

Brown Duteli Cabbage. A very hardy kind, forms a 
solid head, not so popular as many other kinds. 

Driiniliead Cabbage, An 

excellent spring variety forming 
large heads, the outer leaves 
curled. 

White Paris Coss. This 
is very popular with the New 
Orleans market-gardeners, as it 
is the favorite with the French 
population. It grows to perfec- 
tion and forms large, fine heads, 
particularly in the spring of the 
Drumhead Cabbage Lettuce. year. 




For the Southern Slates. 



45 



Larg-e India Curled. A variety highly esteemed in the 
North for summer plauting, but very little cultivated here, 

PerpigTiaii. A fine German variety which forms large 
hght green heads, and which stands the heat better than the 
Koyal. It is much cultivated for the market, as it thrives well 
when sown during the latter end of spring. 

Improved Larg^e Passion. This is a large Cabbage 
Lettuce from California; it attains a large size, grow^s slowly, but 
heads very hard. It does better here during late autumn and 
winter than in summer, as it cannot stand the heat. If sown late 
in the fall and transplanted during winter, it grows to very large 
heads, hard and firm. 



It is the kind shipped from here in the 



spring. 



MELON — MUSK OR CANTELOUPE, 



Melon (Fr.), Melone (Ger.), Melon (Sp.) 

V^ETTED Nutmeg. 
VNetted Citron. 
VPiNE Apple. 



v^ARLY White Japan. 
vIPersian or Cassaba. 
VNew Orleans Market. 



Melons require a rich sandy loam. If the ground is not rich 
enough a couple of shovels full of rotted manure should be mixed 
into each hill, which ought to be from live to six feet apart; drop 
ten or twelve seeds, and when the plants have two or three rough 
leaveSj thin out to three or four plants. Canteloupes are cultiva- 
ted very extensively in the neighborhood of New Orleans, and 
the quality is very fine; far superior to those raised In the ]^orth. 
Some gardeners plant during February and cover with boxes, 
the same as described for Cucumbers. When Melons are ripen- 
ing, too much rain will impair the flavor of the fruit. 

Netted Nutmeg Melon, Small oval melon, roughly 
netted, early and fine flavor. 

Netted Citron Canteloupe. This variety is larger than 
the foregoing kind ; it is more rounded in shape, medium size, 
and roughly netted. 

Pine Apple Canteloupe. A medium sized early variety, 
oval in shape, and of very fine flavor. 

Early White Japan Canteloupe. An early kind, of 
creamish white color, very sweet, and of medium size. 

Persian or Cassaba. A large variety of oval shape, del- 
icate flavor. The rind of this kind is very thin, which is a dis- 
advantage in handling, and prevents it from being planted for 
the market. • Very fine for family use. 

New Orleans Market. A large species of the citron kinJ. 
It is extensively grown for this market; large in size, very roughly 
netted, and of luscious flavor ; different altogether from the North- 
ern Netted Citron, which is earlier, but not so fine in flavor, and 
not half the size as the variety grown here. Small varieties of 
melons will improve in size if cultivated here for a number of 
years, and if care is taken that no Cucumbers, Squashes, Gourds 
or Pumpkin are cultivated in the vicinity. If the best and earli- 
est specimens are selected for seed, in three or four years the fruit 
will be large and fine. 



46 



Eicliard Frotscliefs Almanac and Garden Manual 




f 




j>^ 



jfote —The above cut represents tlie New Orleans Melon ; it has been taken from a common 
specimen grown by one of my cnstomers, who raises the seed of this variety for me. 



MELON— WATER, 

Melon d'Eau (Fr.), Wassermeloxe (Ger ), Saxdia (Sp. 



MouNTAix Sweet. 
Mountain Sprout. 
Improved Gipsey. 



Ice-Cream (White seeded.) 
Orange Water. 
Rattle SxAiiiE. 



Water Melon will grow and produce in places where Oante- 
loupe will not do well. The soil for this ])lant should be light and 
sandy. Plant in hills about eight feet apart, eight to twelve seeds 
in a hill 5 when the plants are well up thin out to three. The 
plants should be hoed often, and the ground between hills kept 
clean till the vines touch. 






Moautaiu Swe. t Vrater 2.IeloD. 



For the Southern States. 




Improved Gipsey Melon. 

Mountain Sweet Water. This is a very popular variety, 
is of obloug shape, iiesh bright scarlet and of good flavor. It is 
very productive. 

Moutain Sprout Water. This is similar in shape to the 
foregoing variety, but rather later. It is light green with irregu- 
lar stripes of dark green. Flesh bright scarlet. 

Iniin'oved Gipsey. This is a lately introduced variety 
which has become the favorite of the market-gardeners. It is 
very large, oblong and of a dark green color, striped ?nd mottled 
with, light green. Flesh scarlet, and of delicious flavor. This 
is without any exception the best market variety, 

Ice-Cream. (White Seeded.) A medium sized variety 
of excellent quality. It is early and very productive. Being 
thin in the rind it is not so well adapted for the market as the 
other kinds 5 notwithstanding this, it is grown exclusively by 
some for that purpose, on account of its earliness. It has come 
into general cultivation more and more every year, as it is very 
sweet, and sells readily in the market. 

Orange Water. Quite a distinct variety from the others. 
The rind cail be peeled off the same as the skin of an orange. It 
is of medium size, fair quality. Very little cultivated. 

Rattle Snake, An old Southern variety which has come 
into notice since a few years; it is of large size, the green not 
quite so dark as the Gripsey, but the stripes larger; fine market 
variety. The past season, when other varieties failed, it stood 
the wet weather well, and sold more readily than others, not hav- 
ing been injured in looks. It stands transportation better than 
any other; has become the standard market variety, and taken 
the place of the Mountain Sweet and Mountain Sprout, which 
were planted in former years. 



48 



Ricliard FroUcJiefs Almanac and Garden Manual 



MUSTARD. 

MorxARDE (Fr.), Sexf (Ger.), Mostaza (Sp.) 
White or Yeleow Seeded. 1 Largeleaved. 

i This is grown to quite an extent in the Southern States, and 

I is sown broad-cast during fall, winter and spring. It may be used 
the same as Spinach, or boiled with meat as greens. The White 
or Yellow Seeded is very little cultivated and is used chiefly for 
medical purposes, or pickling. The Largeleaved or Curled has 

i black seed, a distinct kind from the Northern or European va- 
riety. The seed is raised in Louisiana. It makes very large 

I leaves; cultivated more and more every year. 

NASTURTIUM. 

Capucixe (Fr.). Indiaxische Kresse (Ger.), Capuchixa (Sp.) 
Tael. I Dwarf. 

Kot cultivated here, except for ornament. 

OKRA. 

Tael Growln-g. i Dwarf. 

This is a highly esteemed vegetable in the South, and no gar- 
den, whether small or large, is without it> It is used in making 
'• Gumbo,'' a dish the Creoles of Louisiana know how to prepare 
better than any other people. It is also boiled in salt and water, 
and served with vinegar as a salad, and is considered a very 
wholesome dish. Should not be planted before the ground is 
warm in spring, as the seeds are apt to rot. Sow in drills, which 
ought to be two to three feet apart, and when up, thin out, and 
leave one or two plants every twelve or fifteen inches. 







Tall GrowiDfj Okra. 



For the Southern States. 



49 



Tall Growing". This is the variety most cultivated here. 
The pods are long, round towards the end, and keep longer tender 
than the square podded kind. 

Dwarf. Cultivated only as being earlier than the former 
kind. The pods are short, thick and ribbed, and not so nice in 
appearance as the Tall Growing variety. 

ONION. 

Onion (Fr.), Zwiebel (Ger.), Cebolla (Sp.) 
Yellow Dutch or Stras«burg. I White, or PvIlvrr Skin. 
Large Red Wethersfield. | Creole. 

The Onion is one of the most important vegetables, and is 
grown to a large extent in Louisiana. Hundreds of barrels are 
shipped in spring from here to the Western and Northern States. 
There is one peculiar feature about raising Onions here, and that 
is they can only be raised from Southern, or so-called Creole seed. 
No seed from North, West, or any x:>art of Europe, will produce a 
merchantable Onion in the South. When the crop of Creole seed 
is a failure, and they are scarce, they will bring a good price, and 
have been sold as high as ten dollars a pound, when at the same 
time Northern seed could be had for one-fourth of that price. 
Northern raised seed can be sown to be used green, but as we 
have Shalots here which grow during the whole autumn and 
winter, and multiply very rapidly, the sowing of seed for green 




Louisiana Creole Onion. 



onions is not profitable. Seed should 
of September to the end of October ; 



be sown from the middle 
if sown sooner too many 



50 Richard FrofscJier's Almanac and Garden Manual 

will throw up sf-ed stalks. They are generally sown broad-casf 
and when the size of a goose quill transplanted into rows one to 
two feet apart, and aboat five inches in the rows. Onions are 
different, in regard to rotation, from other vegetables: they do 
best if raised on the same ground for a succession of years. The 
past season has been favorable to mature Creole Onion seed, and 
I have been able to fill all orders. The price of Onions has been 
good, and it is expected to be good next spring, owing to the dry 
weather North and West, and it is hoped that a good profit will 
be made by those who are in the cultivation of this vegetable. 

Yellow Dutch, or Strasshiu'^-, A brownish yellow On- 
ion, tiat and of good size in the ZSorth, but does not bulb here. 

Large Reel Wethersfield, This is the favorite kind in 
the East, but does not answer here, except to be used green. 

White, or Silver Skin. A mild variety of the same shape 
as the Strassburg. This variety is more apt to make a small onion 
here than the two foregoing kinds are. 

Louisiana, or Creole Onion, This is generally of a 
light red color, darker thau the Strassburg. and lighter in color 
than the Wethersfield. The seed I have been selling, of this 
kind, for a number of years, ha.^ been raised on Bayou Lafourche, 
and never has failed to make fine large Onions. 

X£W ITALIAN OXIOXS, 

Xew Queen. This is a medium sized white variety from 
Italy, very early, and fiat: can be sown as late as February, and 
good sized bulbs will yet be obtained. It is of mild flavor and 
very fine when boiled and dressed for the table. It can not be 
too highly recommended. 

Giant Rocca. Another Italian variety of globular shape: 
brownish skin, and of very mild flavor. It is not quite as early 
as the White Qaeen. but if sown early in .Spring will attain a 
good size. The new crop of seed of these two varieties can not 
be had here before end of October. I should recommend to sow 
the seeds thinly in drills, so that they need not to be transplanted. 
I tried another Italian variety, the ]S'eai)olitan Marzagole, but did 
not find it as good as the Queen. It is whi.e. but not as early as 
the former. 

These Italian varieties are the first I ever saw bulb here, and 
they will be valuable when the crop of Creole Onion seed should 
fail. The seed I ofier are imported directly from Italy, and can 
be relied upon as being genuine. G-ive them a trial. 

SHALOTS. 

ECHALLOTTE (Fr.J, SCHALOTTEX ''Gei.) 

A small sized Onion which grows in clumps. It is generally 
grown in the South, and used in its green state for soujjs, stews, 
etc. There are two varieties, the Eed and White: the latter va- 
riety is the most popular. In the fall of the year the bulbs are 
divided and set out in rows a foot apjart. and four to six inches in 
the rows. They grow and multiply very fast, and can be divided 
during winter and set out again. Late in spring, when the tops 



For the Southern States. 



51 



become dry, they have to be taken up, thoroughly dried, and 
stored in a dry, airy place. 

PARSLEY. 

Persil (Fr.), Petkrsillie (Ger.), Perjil (Sp.) 

Plain Leaved. I Improved Garnishing. 

Double Curled. | 

Parsley can be sown during the fall from August to October, 
and during spring, from end of January to end of April. It is 
generally sown broad-cast. 

Plain Leaved. This is the kind raised for the New Or- 
leans market. 

Double Curled, The leaves of this variety are curled. It 
has the same flavor as the other kind, but is not so popular. 

Improved Garnishing". This is the best kind to orna- 
ment a dish J has the same flavor as the other kinds. 

PARSNIP, 

Panais (Fr.). Pastinake (Ger.), Pastinaca (Sp.) 
HALLOW CROWN, OR SUGAR. 

Should be sown in deep, mellow soil', deeply spaded, as the 
roots are long, in drills twelve to eighteen inches apartj. when 
the plants are three inches high thin out to three inches apart in 
the row. Sow from September to November for winter, and Jan- 
uary to March for spring and summer crops. 

The Hallow Crown, or Sugar, is the kind generally cul- 
tivated ; it possesses all the good qualities for which other va- 
rieties are recommended. 

PEAS. 

Pois (Fr.), Erbse (Ger.),.GuiSANTE (Sp.) 
EARLIEST. 



Extra Early, 2| feet. 
Early Washington, 3 feet. 



Early Tom Thumb, 1 foot. 
Laxton's Alpha, 3 feet. 



SECOND CROP, 



Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod, 1^ feet. 
Champion of England, 5 " 
McLean's Advancer, 3 " 



McLean's Little Gem, 1^ feet. 
Laxton's Prolific Long Pod, 3 ft. 
Eugenie, 3 feet. 



GENERAL CROP. 



Dwarf Blue Imperial, 3 feet. 
Royal Dwarf Marrow, 3 feet. 
Black Eyed Marrowfat, 4 feet. 



Large White Marroavfat, 4 feet. 
Dwarf Sugar, 2^ feet. 
Tall Sugar, 6 feet. 



Peas are a fine vegetable, and therefore are very generally 
cultivated. It is best to plant in ground manured the previous 
year, else they will make more vines than peas. As a general 
thing the dwarf kinds require richer ground than the tall grow- 
ing varieties. Marrowfat Peas planted in rich ground will not 
bear well, but they produce finely in sandy, light soil. 



D'J 



BicJiard Frotscliers Almanac and Garden Manual 



The Extra Early, Tom Thumb, or Laxton's Alpha will not 

piodace a large crop without being in rich ground. Peas have 
to be planted in drills two inches deep and from two to three feet 
apart, according to the height they may grow. Tom Thumb can 
be planted one foot apart, whereas White Marrowfat or Champion 
of England require three feet. The Extra Early, Alpha and Tom 
Thumb can be planted during August and September for fall. 
During November and December we plant the Marrowfats ; Jan- 
uary and February, as late as March, all kinds can be planted, 
but for the latter month only the earliest varieties should be used, 
as the late varieties will get mildewed before they bring a crop. 
Peas will bear much better if some brush or rods are stuck in 
the drills to support them, except 
the very dwarf kinds. 

Exti-a Early. This is the 
earliest Pea cultivated : very pop- 
ular with the small market gar- 
deners here, who have rich 
grounds. It is very productive 
and good flavored. The stock I 
sell is as good as any sold in the 
country, not surpassed by any, no 
matter whose name is put before 
••'Extra Early." 

Early Wa shin g't on. Ear- 
ly 3Iay or Frame, which are 
ail nearly the same thing; is about 
ten days later than the Extra 
Early. It is very i)roductive and 
keeps longer in bearing than the 
foregoing kind. Pods a little 
smaller. Ter}' popular about Xew 
OrleanS: 

Tom Tlmml), Very dwarf 
and quite productive. Can be 
cultivated in rows a foot apart : 
requires no branches or sticks. 

Laxton's Alpha. This is 
a variety of recent introduction ; 
it is the earliest wrinkled variety 
in cultivation : of delicous flavor 
and very proline. This variety 
deserves to be recommended to 
all who like a first class pea. It 
will come into general cultivation 

when better known. Extra Early Peas. 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod. An early dwarf variety, 
very stout and branching, requires no sticks, but simply the earth 
drawn round the roots. It is very productive and of excellent 
quality. 

Champion of England. A green, v, rinkled variety of 
very fine flavor: not profitable for the market, but recommended 
for familv use. 




For the Southern States. 



53 



McLean's Advancer. This is another green wrinkled 
variety, about two weeks earlier than the foreg-oing^ kind. 

McLean's Little Gem. A dwarf, wrinkled variety, of 
recent introduction. It is early, very prolific and of excellent 
flavor. Requires no sticks. 

Laxton's Prolific Long- Pod. A green marrow pea of 
good quality. Pods are long and well filled. It is second early, 
can be recommt^nded for the use of market-gardeners, being very 
prolific. 

Eng'enie. A white, wrinkled variety, of fine flavor ; it is 
of the same season as the Advancer. Can not be too highly re- 
commended for family use. 

Dwarf Blue Imperial. A very good bearer if planted 
early ; pods are large and well filled. 

Royal Dwarf Marrow. Similar to the large Marrowfat, 
but of dwarf habit. 

Black Eyed Marrowfat. This kind is planted more for 
the market than any other. It is very productive, and when 
young, quite tender. Grows about four feet high. 

Early White Marrowfat. Similar to the last variety, 
except that it grows about two feet taller and is less productive. 

Dwarf Sugar. A variety where the whole pod can be 
used, after the string is drawn off from the back of the pod. 
Three feet high. 

Tall Sugar, has the same qualities as the foregoing kind, 
only grows taller and the pods are somewhat larger. Neither of 
these two varieties are very popular here. 

THE PEA BUG. 

All peas grown near Philadelphia have small holes in them, 
caused by the sting of the Pea Bug, while the pod is forming, 
when it deposits its egg in it. Later the insect perfects itself and 
comes out of the dry pea, leaving the hole. 

The germ of the pea is never destroyed, and they grow equal- 
ly as well as those without holes. Market-gardeners in this 
neighborhood who have been planting the Extra Early Peas for 
years, will not take them without holes, and consider these a 
trade mark. 

FIELD OR COW PEAS. 

There are a great many varieties of Gow Peas, different in 
color and growth. They are planted mostly for fertilizing pur- 
poses; that is sown broadcast, and when a good stand and of 
sufficient height, they are plowed under. The Clay Pea is the 
most popular. There are several varieties, called crowders, which 
do no not grow as tall as the others, but produce a great many 
pods, which are used green, the same as snap-beans, and if dried, 
like dried beans. They make a very good dish. The crowders 
are of an oblong shape, almost pointed at one end j they are on 
an average larger than the other Field Peas. Lady Peas are 
small, white, with a black eye; they are generally planted be- 
tween corn, so that they can run upon it. Dry, they are consid- 
ered the very best variety for cooking. 



54 



Pdchard Frotschefs Almanac and Garden Manual 



PEPPER. 

PiMEXT (Fr.), Spaxischer Pfeffer (Grer.), Pimento (Sp.) 
Bell or Bull Nose. j Luxg Red Cayexxe. 

Sweet Spaxish Monstrous. j Red Cherry. 

Peppers are tender and require to be raised in the hot-bed. 
Seed should be sown in January, and when large enough trans- 
planted into the ground in rows from one and a half to two feet 
apart, and a foot to a foot and a half in the rows. There are more 
Peppers raised here than in other sections of the country ; the 
hot varieties are used for seasoning and making pepper sauce 5 
the mild variety is highly esteemed for sala 1. Care should be 
taken not to grow different kinds 
close together as they mix very 
readily. 

Sweet Spanish, or Mon- 
sti'Oiis. A very popular variety, 
and much cultivated, and used for 
salad. It is very mild, grows to a 
large size, taperiug towards the end. 

Ball or Bull Xose. Is a large 
oblong variety which is not sweet 
or mild, as thought by some. The 
seeds are yery hot. TJsed for pick- 



Long* Red Cayenne. Is very 
hot aud pungent. Cultivated here 
and used for pepper sauce and sea- 
soning purposes. 

Red Cherry. A small, round- 
ish variety, very hot and produc- 
iive. 




Svreet Spanish, or Monstrous. 




Red Cherry. 




Long Red Cayenne. 



For the ISoutliern States. 



55 



POTATOES. 

POxMME DE Terre (Ff.) Kartoffel (Ger.) 



Early Rose. 
Jackson White. 
Breese's Peerless. 
Breese's Prolific. 



Russets. 

Extra Early Vermont. 

Snowflake. 

Beauty of Hebron. 



The past season has not been a profitable one for those engaged 
in cnltivating potatoes ; only the very early planted netted a 
good profit. The price dropped very quickly, and, owing to the 
wet spring, the most potatoes were of poor quality, and were not 
suitable for shipping. Where potatoes were good and could be 
held till late in the season, the price was fair and paid well. 

Potatoes thrive and produce best in a light, dry but rich soil. 
Well decomposed stable manure is the best, but if it cannot be 
had, cotton seed meal, bone dust, or any other fertilizer should be 
used to make the ground rich enough. If the ground was planted 
the fall previous with Cow Peas which were plowed under, it will 
be in good condition for potatoes. Good sized tubers should he 
selected for planting, which can be cut in pieces net too small; 
each piece ought to contain at least three eyes. Plant in drills 
from two to three feet apart, according to the space and how to 
be cultivated afterwards. For field culture two and a half to 
three feet apart ; for garden two feet will answer. We plant po- 
tatoes here from end of December to end of March, but the surest 
time is about the first of February. If planted early they should 
be planted deeper than if planted late, and billed up as they grow. 
If potatoes are planted shallow and not hilled soon, they will suf- 
fer more, if caught by a late frost, than if planted deep and hilled 
up well. Early potatoes have not the same value here as in the 
North, as the time of planting is so long, and very often the first 
planting get cut down by a frost, and a later planting, which may 
just be peeping through the ground, will escape and produce in 
advance of the first planted. A fair crop of potatoes can be raised 
here, if planted in August; if the Autumn is not too dry they will 
bring nice tubers by end of November. They should not be cut 
if planted at this time of the year, but planted whole. Potatoes 
from those raised in spring can be used for seed purposes. They 
should be put in a moist place before planting, so they may 
sprout. The early varieties are preferable for this time of plant- 
ing. 

I have been handling several thousand barrels of potatoes 
every season for planting, and make seed potatoes a speciality. 
The potatoes I sell are Eastern grown, which, as every one inter- 
ested in potato culture knows, are superior and preferable to 
Western grown. Ten years ago I introduced the Peerless Potato 
here. I then only received ten barrels, as the price was very 
high ; but seeing the tine qualities of the same, and finding it to 
suit our climate, I contracted the following year for a considerable 
lot, and urged my customers to plant them. No one has been 
disappointed in the result. It was during the same year that 



56 Eicliard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

amongst a lot of Jackson Whites sent out here from New York, 
there were one hundred barrels of Peerless Potatoes. Merchants 
are not very particular in regard to name, and they were sold for 
Goodrich, Jackson Whites, or anything else they resembled. 
They are well known now, and tlie kind mostly planted. I brought 
out six years ago the Extra Early Vermont, Brownell's Beauty, 
and Compton's Surprise The latter variety I have discarded ; 
it is not salable on account of its purplish color. Five years ago 
the Snowiiake was the sensation. 

After another years trial I have discarded the Brownell's 
Beauty. It is of very good quality, productive, but not salable 
in the market on account of its color, which resembles the Eusset, 
one of the most common potatoes received here from the West. 
I have had six other new varieties under trial, but did not find 
anything to justify the high i^rice asked for them for our section. 
The Alpha is a fine white early kind, but not productive. Euby 
and other varieties are pinkish, which always is an objection for 
this market. These fancy prices for new potatoes do not pay 
here, as we can keep none over for seed, and any person raising 
for the market would not realize a cent more for a new fancy vari- 
ety per barrel, than for a barrel of good Peerless or Early Eose. 
Earliness is no consideration, as we plant from December to end 
of March. Somebody may plant Early Eose in December and 
another in February, and those planted in February come to 
the market first ; depends entirely upon the season. If late frosts 
set in, early planted potatoes will be cut down, and those just com- 
ing out of the ground will not be hurt. The Jackson White has giv- 
en but little satisfaction this and last year, except in cases where 
planted very early. The yield was very good, but the quality 
poor and very knotty. Perhaps this was the fault of the season. 
It is hardly planted any more for the market. Up to now the 
Peerless is the standard variety. Among the new kinds I have 
tiied, I find the White Elephant to be a fine potato. It is a very 
strong grower, tubers oblong, very productive, good quality and 
flavor. It is late and will come in at the end of the season if 
planted with the earlier varieties. So far the price has been loo 
high, but expect this year to have some to sell. 

Early Kose. This is, without any doubt, the best potato 
for the ta'ble. It is oval, very shallow-eyed, pink-skinned, very 
dry and mealy when boiled. It has not Ijecome as popular as it 
deserves as a market variety, as pink or red potatoes do not sell 
so well here as the white kinds. This variety should not be 
l^lanted too soon, from the fact that they make small stalks, and 
if cut down by frost, they suffer more than other varieties. Xo 
better potato for family use. Every one who plants ought to 
plant some of this variety, but they want rich, light soil to grow 
to perfection. 

Jackson ^liite. This is a very popular kind here in Xew 
Orleans, and before the Peerless was introduced it was the lead- 
ing potato. It is not quite so early as the Peerless. It is white, 
has a great many eyes, and is of very good quality. When grown 
here it gets smoother than when produced in the East. It keeps 



For the Southern States. 



57 



well, and during wet seasons rots less than any other variety. Al- 
most out of cultivation. 

Breese's Peerless. Only seven years since this variety was 
introduced, yet at present it is the leading variety for market as 
well as for family use. Skin dull white, sometimes slightly rus- 




Snowflake. 



setted ; eyes few and shallow, round, occasionally oblong ; grows 
to a large size, very productive and earlier than the Jackson 
White. As white potatoes are more salable than pinkish kinds, 
and as this variety is handsome in appearance, and of good qual- 
ity, it has become the general favorite in this section. 

Breese's Prolific. This is another new sort. The vines 
are short, tubers from medium to large, very regular and very 
smooth. Skin dull white, slightly russetted; eyes shallow and 
pinkish j flesh white, very mealy and of fine quality -, not quite 
so productive here as the foregoing kind. 



Kussets. This kind is still planted by some. It is round, 
redish and slightly russetted. Eyes deep and many. Very pro- 
ductive, but not so fine a quality as some others. If the season 
is dry it will do well, but in a wet season, this variety will rot 
quicker than any other. 



58 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Ma7iual 



Extra Early Ver- 
mont. Very similar 
to the Early Eose, but 
of a stronger growth ; 
a little earlier, and the 
tubers are more uni- 
form and larger. It is 
an exeelient table va- 
riety. 

Snowflake. This 
is a very early variety. 
Tubers good medium _ _ _ 
size 5 elongated, very ^^^^^^^M 
uniform and quire pro 
ductive. Eyes flat ouj 
the body of the tuber, 
but compressed on the 
seed end. Skin white, 
flesh very fine grained, 
and when boiled snow- 
white. 

B e a 11 1 y of He - 
broil. I have tried 
this variety very thor- 
oughly, and have 
found it all that it has 
been represented. It 
is earlier than the Ear- 
ly Eose, which resem- 
bles it very much, be- 
ing a little lighter and 
more russetted in col- 
or. It is very produc- 
tive and of excellent 
table quality, more 
mealy than the Early 
Eose, 




Extra Early Vermont. 



THE SWEET POTATO. 

Convolvulus batatas. 



The Sweet Potato is next to corn the most important food 
crop in the South. They are a wholesome and nutritious diet, 
good for man and beast." Though cultivated to a limited extent 
on the sandy lands of Kew Jersey and some of the middle States, 
it thrives best on the light rich lands of the South, which bring 
their red and golden fruits to greatest perfection under the benign 
rays of a southern sun. It is a plant of a warm climate, a child 
of the sun, much more nutritious than the Irish Potato on account 
of the great amount of saccharine matter it contains, and no south- 
ern table should be found without it from the first day of August 



For the Southern States. 



59 



till the last day of May. Some plant early in spring the potato 
itself in the prepared ridges, and cut the vine from the potato 
when large enough, and plant them out; others start the potatoes 
in a bed prepared expressly for that purpose, and slip off the 
sprouts as they come up, and set these ont. The latter method 
will produce the earliest potatoes, others who set out the vines, 
say that they make the largest tubers. In preparing the land the 
soil should be thoroughly pulverized, the ridges laid oft about 
five feet apart, well drawn up and rather flat on top. If every- 
thing is ready and time for planting has arrived do not wait for 
a rain, make a paste of clay and cow manure, in this dip the roots 
of the slips and press the earth firmly around them. Old slips are 
more tenacious of life than young ones, and will under these cir- 
cumstances answer best. Watering afterwards, if dry weather 
continues, of course, will be beneficial. Otherwise plant your 
vines or slips just before or after a rain. Two feet apart in the 
row is considered a good distance. The ridges should never be 
disturbed by a plow from the time they are made until the pota- 
toes are ready to be dug. 

Scrape off" the grass and young weeds with the hoe and pull 
up the large ones by hand. Grab grass is peculiarly inimical to 
the sweet potato and should be kept carefully out of the patch. 
The vines should never be allowed to take root between the rows. 
Sweet potatoes should be dug before a heavy frost occurs j a very 
light one will do no harm. The earth should be dry enough to 
keep it from sticking to the potatoes. The old fashioned potato 
bank is the best arrangement for keeping them, the main points 
being a dry place and ventilation. Varieties generally cultivated 
in the South : 

The Yam. Taking into consideration quality and produc- 
tiveness the Yam stands at the head of the list. Frequently when 
baked, the saccharine matter in the shape of candy will be seen 
hanging to them in strings. Skin and flesh .yellow, and very 
sweet. Without a doubt, the best potato for family use. 

The Bermuda. This variety is perhaps a little more pro- 
ductive and earlier than the preceding, but far behind it in qual- 
ity. Skin red, flesh white and mealy, and on that account not 
very popular as a table potato. 

Shanghai or California Yam. This is the earliest va- 
riety we hM,ve, frequently, under favorable circumstances, giving 
good sized tubers two mouths after planting the vine. Very pro- 
ductive, having given 300 bushels per acre when planted early 
and on rich land. Is almost the only kind cultivated for the New 
Orleans market. Skin dull white or yellow, flesh white, dry and 
mealy, in large specimens frequently stringy. 

There are some other varieties of Sweet Potatoes highly 
prized in the West, but are not appreciated here. The Ked and 
Yellow Nansemond are of fine quality and productive, but will 
not sell so well as the California Yam when taken to market. For 
home consumption they are fine, and deserve to be cultivated. 



60 



Richard Frotscli&r^s Almanac and Garden Maimed 



PUMPKIN. 

POTiROX (Fr.), KuERBiss (Gei.). Calabaza (Sp.) 

I Cashaw Crook Neck. 



Kentucky Field. 
Large Cheese. 



Are generally grown in the field, with the exception of the 
Cashaw, which is planted in the garden ; but great care must be 
taken not to have them close to Squashes or Melons, as they 
will mix and spoil the quality of the same. Plant in hills from 
eight to twelve feet apart. 

Kentucky Field. Large round, soft shell, salmon color, 
very productive; best for stock. 

Larg'e Clieese. This is of a bright orange, sometimes sal- 
mon color, fine grained and used for the table or for stock feeding. 

CasliaTV (Crook Xeek). This is very extensively cultiva- 
ted in the South for table use. There are two kinds, one all yel- 
low and the other green striped with light yellow color. The 
latter is the preferable kind; the flesh is fine grained, yellow and 
very sweet. It keeps well. This variety takes the place here of 
the Winter Squashes, which are very little cultivated. 



RADISH. 

Radies, Rave (Fr.), Radibs, Rettig (Ger.), Rabaxo (Sp.) 



Early Long Scarlet. 
Earlt Scarlet Turxip. 
Yellow Su:^imer Turxip. 
Eai^ly Scarlet Oli^t: Shaped. 



White Summer Turnip. 
Scarlet Half Long Frexch. 
Black Spaxish (Winter. 
Chinese Rose (Winter.) 



This is a very popular vegetable, and grown to a large extent. 
The ground for radishes should be rich and mellow. The early 
small varieties can be sown broadcast among other crops, such 
as beets, peas, spinach, or where lettuce has been transplanted. 
Early varieties are sown in this section the whole year, but during 
summer thej- require frequent watering to make them grow 
quickly. The Yellow and White Summer Turnip are best for 
planting during the summer months. The Half Long Scarlet 
French is the only red kind raised for the Xew Orleans market, 
and all the other cities in the United States taken together do 
not use as many of that one variety as Xew Orleans does. I have 
sold nearly two thousand pounds of the seed per annum for the 
last twelve years. 

Early liOiig- Scarlet. This is a very desirable variety; it 
is of a bright scarlet color, short top, and very brittle. 

Early Scarlet Turnip. A small, round variety, the fa- 
vorite kind for family use. it is very early, crisp and mild when 
young. 



For the Southern States. 



61 





Yellow Summer Turnip. 



Early Long Scarlet. 




Scarlet Half Long French. 




Early Scarlet Turnip. 



Yellow Summer Turnip. This stands the heat better 
than the foregoing kinds. It is of an oblong shape, yellow, rus- 
setted on the top. It should be sowq very thinly. Best adapted 
for summer and fall sowing. 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped. This is similar to the 
Half Long French, but shorter, and not quite so bright in color. 
It is early and of good quality. Top short. 



62 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Wliite Smnmer Turnip. This is a summer aud fall va- 
riety. ObloDg in shape, skin white, stands the beat well, but is 
not much used. 

Scarlet Half Long French. This is the most popular 
Eadish tor the market. It is of a bright scarlet color, and when 
well grown from two to three inches long, very brittle and tender. 

Black Spanish. (Wuster). This is sown during fall and 
early winter. It is oval in shape, very solid and stands consider- 
able cold weather without being hurt. It can be sown broadcast 
between Turnips, or planted in rows a foot apart, and thinned out 
from three to four inches in the rows. 

Chinese Rose. (Winter). This is of a half long shape, 
bright rose color. It is as hardy as the last described kind, but 
not so popular. 

' ROQUETTE. 

EOQUETTE (Fr.) 

Sown from September to March. It is used as a salad, re- 
sembling the Cress in taste. 



(Sp.) 



SALSIFY, OR OYSTER PLANT. 

Salsifis (Fr.), Hafeewuezel (Ger.), Ostra Vegetal 
A vegetable which ought to be more 
cultivated than it is. It is prepared in dif- 
ferent ways. It partakes of the flavor of 
oysters. It should be sown in the fall of 
the year j not later than Ifovember. The 
ground ought to be manured the spring 
previous, aud deeply spaded up, and well 
pulverized. Sow in drills about ten inches 
apart, aud thin out to three to four inches 
in the rows. 

SPINACH. 

Epinaed (Fr.), Spixat (Ger.), Espikago (Sp.) 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy. 
Broad Leaved Flajs^ders. 

A great deal of this is raised for the 
New Orleans market. It is very popular. 
Sown from September to end of March. If 
the fall is dry and hot, it is useless to sow 
it, as the seeds require moisture and cool 
nights to make them come up. The richer 
the ground, the larger the leaves. 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy. The 

leaves of this variety are large, thick and 
a little curled. It does not grow so strong 
as the following kind. 

Salsify or Oyster Plant. 

Broad Leaved Flanders. This is the standard variety, 
both for market and family use. Leaves large^ broad aud very 
succulent. 




For the Southern States. 



63 



SORREL. 

OSEILLE (Fr.), SAUERAMPFER(Ger.), ACEDERA'(Sp.) 

Planted in drills a foot apart, during the fall of the year ; and 
thinned out to three to four inches in the drills. Sorrel is used 
for various purposes in the kitchen. It is used the same as Spin- 
ach J also, in soups and as a salad. 

SQUASH. 

CoURGE (Fr.), KUERBiss (Ger.), Calabaza Tontanera (Sp.) 

London Vegetable Marrow, 
The Hubbard. 



Early Bush, or Patty Pan. 
Long Green, or Summer Crook- 
Neck. Boston Marrow. 

Sow during March in hills from three to four feet apart, six 
to eight seeds. Wheti well up, thin them out to three of the 
strongest plants. JFor a succession they can be planted as late 
as June. Some who protect by boxes plant as soon as the first 
of February, but it is best to wait till the ground gets warm. 
When it is time to plant Corn, it is time to plant Squash. 




Early Bush or Patty Paa. Long Green or Summer Crook-Neck. The Hubbard. 

Early Busli, or Patty Pan. Is the earliest and the only 
popular kind here. All other varieties are very little cultivated, 
as the Cashaw Pumpkin, the striped variety, takes their place. 
It is of dwarfish habit, grows bnshy and does not take much room. 

Long Crreen, or Summer Crook-Neck. This is a 
very strong grower, and continues in bearing longer than the first 
named kind. It is of good quality, but not so popular. 

liOndon Vegetable Marrow. A European variety, 
very little cultivated here. It grows to a good size and is verjg 
dry. Color, whitish with a yellow tinge. 

The Hubbard. This is a Winter Squash, very highly es- 
teemed in the East, but hardly cultivated here. 

Boston Marrow. Cultivated to a large extent North and 
East for Winter use, where it is used for custards, etc. It keeps 
for a long time and is of excellent quality, but not esteemed here, 
as most people consider the Southern grown Cashaw Pumpkin 
superior to any Winter Squash. 



64 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



TOMATO. 

TOMATE (Fr.), LlEBESAPFEL (Ger.), TOMATE (Sp.) 

*<i<ExTRA Early Dwarf Red. 
t \/Early Large Smooth Red. 
Feejee Island. 
Tilde N, 



VfROPHY, (selected.) 
Vt^ARGE Yellow. 

'VAcme, (new.) 
-■?- VParagon, (new.) 



Seed should be sown in January, in hot beds, or in boxes 
which must be placed in a sheltered spot, or near windows. In 
March they can be sown in the open ground. Tomatoes are gen- 
erally sown too thick, and become too crowded when two to three 
inches high, which makes the plants too thin and spindly. If 
they are transplanted when two to three inches high, about three 
inches apart each way, they will become short and sturdy, and 
will not suffer when planted out into the open ground. Plant 
them from three to four feet apart. Some varieties can be plant- 
ed closer 5 for instance, for the Extra Early, which is of very 




Selected Trophy. 



For the Southern States. 



65 




Extra Early Dwarf. 



dwarfish babit, two and 
a half feet apart is en- 
ough. They should be 
supported by stakes.— 
When allowed to grow 
up wildj the fruit which 
touches the ground will 
rot. For a late or fall 
crop the seed should be 
sown towards the latter 
end of May and during 
June. 

Extra Early 
Dwarf. This is the 
earliest in cultivation. 
It is dwarfish in habit; 
fruit larger than the fol- 
lowing kind, and more 




The New Acme. 



66 



Richard FrotscJier^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



flat; bright scarlet in color and very productive. For an early 
market variety it cannot be surpassed. 

Early Larg'e Smooth Red. One of the earliest ; medium 
size ; skin light scarlet ; smooth and productive. 

Fejee Island. A large variety, very solid, and of pinkish 
color. Good for a late variety. 

Tilden. This is the standard variety for family garden as 
well as market. It is of a good shape, brilliant scarlet, and from 
above medium to large in size. It keeps well and is planted for 
a general crop. 

Selected Trophy. A very large, smooth Tomato, more 
solid and heavy than auy other kind. It is not quite as early as 
the Tilden. Has become a favorite variety. 

^Larg'e YellOTF. This is similar in shape to the Large Eed, 
but more solid. Not vexy popular. 

Acme. This is a new variety and the prettiest and most 
solid Tomato ever introduced. It is of medium size, round and 
very smooth, a strong grower and a good and long bearer. They 
are the perfection of Tomatoes for family use, but will not answer 
for shipping purposes; the skin is too tender and cracks when 
fully ripe. Of all the varieties introduced none yet has surpassed 
this kind, when all qualities are brought into consideration. It 
does well about here where the ground is heavy. 

Paragon. This variety has lately come into notice. It is 
very solid, of a bright reddish crimson color, comes in about the 
same time as the Tilden, but is heavier in foliage, and protects its 
fruit. It is productive and keeps long in bearing, well adapted for 
shipping. 

TURNIP» 

Navet (Fr.), RUEBE (Ger.), Nabo Comux (Sp.) 



Early Red or Purple Top, 

(strap-leaved). 

Early White Flat Dutch, 

(strap-leaved). 

Large White Globe. 

PoMERiAN Globe. 

White Spring. 

Yellow Aberdeen. 



Golden Ball. 
Amber Globe. 
Early Purple Top Munich. 
Purple Top Ruta Baga. 
Improved Ruta Baga. 
Extra Early White French, or 
White Egg Turnip, (new). 



Turnips do best in new ground. When the soil has been 
worked long, it should receive a top dressing of land-plaster or 
ashes. If stable manure is used the ground should be manured 
the spring previous to sowing, so it may be well incorporated 
with the soil. When fresh manure is used the turnips are apt to 



For the Southern States. 



67 





Early Red or Purple Top, (strap-leaved). Improved Purple Top Ruta Baga 



become specked. Sow from end of Julj^ till October for fall and 
winter, and in January, February and March for spring and sum- 
mer use. They are generally sown broadcast, but the Euta Baga 
should be sown in drills, or rather ridges, and should not be sown 
later than end of August. The Golden Ball and Aberdeen not 
later than end of September. The White Flat Dutch, Early 
Spring and Pomerian Globe are best for spring, but also good for 
autumn. 




Early White Flat Dutch, (strap-leaved. ") 



Early Red, or Purple Top. 

one of the most popular kinds. It is 



(Strap-Leaved.) This is 
flat with a small taproot, 



68 



Eieliard Frotscherh Almanac and Garden Manual 



and a bright purple top. The leaves are narrow and grow erect 
from the bulb. The flesh is fine grained and rich. 

Early White Flat Dutch. (Strap- Leaved.) This is 
similar to the above iu shape, but considered about a week earlier. 
It is very popular. 

Liarge White Globe. A very large variety, mostly grown 
for stock. It can be used for the table when young. Flesh coarse 
but sweet j tops very large. 

Pomerian Globe. This is selected from the above. It is 
smoother and handsomer in shape ; good to plant early in spring. 
When pulled before it is to large it is a very saleable turnip in 
the market.- 

White Spring. This is similar to the White Flat Dutch j 
not quite so large but rounder in shape. The tops are larger, it 
is early, a good quality, and best adapted for spring planting. 

Yellow Aberdeen. This a variety very little cultivated 
here. It is shaped like the Kuta Baga, color yellow with purple 
top. Good for table or feeding stock. 

Rober t s o n ' s 
Golden Ball, is 

the best of the yel- 
low Turnips for ta- 
ble use. It is very 
smooth, oval in 
shape, and of a 
beautiful orange co- 
lor. Leaves are 
small. Should be 
sown in the fall of 
the year, and al- 
ways in drills, so 
that the plants can 
be thinned out and 
worked. This kind 
ought to be more 
cultivated. 

Amber Globe. 

This is very similar 
to the above kind. 

Early Purple 
Top Munich. A 

new variety from 
Germany; flat, with 
Bed or Purple Top ; 
same as the Ameri- 
can variety, but fif- 
teen days earlier to 
Pomerian Globe. mature. It is very 

tender and of fine flavor. Kecommended highly. 




For the Southern Slates. 



69 



Purx^le Top Ruta Bag:a 
or Swede. This is giowu 
for feeding stock, and also for 
table use. It is oblong in 
shape, yellow flesh, very solid. 
Should always be sown in rows 
or ridges. 

Improved Purple Top 
Ruta Bag'a. Similar to the 
above; bulb smoother, with 
but few fibrous roots. 

Extra Earljr White 
French, or White Egg* 
Turiiij). This is a lately in- 
troduced variety ; is said to be 
very early, tender and crisp. K 
The shape of it is oblong, re- |fr- 
sembling an egg. Having 
tried it, I found it as repre- 
sented, quickly growing, ten- 
der and sweet. It never will 
become a favorite market va- 
riety, as only flat kinds sell 
well in this market. It has to 
be pulled up soon, as it be- 
comes pithy shortly after at- 
taining maturity. 




Extra Early White French. 



SWEET AND MEDICINAL HERBS. 

Some of these possess culinary as well as medicinal proper- 
ties. Should be found in every garden. Ground where they are 
to be sown should be well prepared and x^ulverized. Some of 
them have very fine seed, and it is only necessary, after the seed 
is sown, to press the ground with the back of the spade ; if cov- 
ered too deep they cannot come up. Early spring is the best 
time to sow them — some, such as Sage, Rosemary, Lavender and 
Basil, are best sown in a frame and afterwards transplanted 
into the garden. 

Anise, Fimpinelle Anisum. 

Balm, Melisse Officinalis. 

Basil, large and small leaved, Ocymum Basilicum. 

Bene, Sesamum Orientale. 

Borage, Borago Officinalis. 
• Caraway, Carum Garni. 

Dill, Anethum Gtaveolens. 

Fennel, sweet, Anethum Foeniculum. 

Lavender, Lavendula Vera. 

Majoram, sweet. Origanum May or am. 

Pot Marigold, Calendula Officinalis. 

Eosemary, Rosemary Officinalis. 

Rue, Euta Graveolens 

Sage, Salvia Officinalis. 

Summer Savory, Satureja Rortensis. 
Thyme, Thymas Vulgaris. Wormwood, Artemisia Absinthium, 



70 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



GRASS AND FIELD SEEDS. 

I have often been asked what kind of G-rass Seed is the best 
for this lattitude, but so far I have never been able to answer 
these quesiious satisfactorily. For hay I do DOt think there is 
anything better than the Millet. For permanent grass I have al- 
most come to the conclusion that none of the grasses used for 
this purpose North and West will answer. Eye, Red Oats and 
Rescue G-rass will make winter pasturage in this latitude. Dif- 
ferent kinds of Clover answer very well during spring, but during 
the hot summer months I have never found anything to stand 
and produce except the Bermuda and Grabgrass, which are in- 
digenous to the South. The former does not seed, and has to be 
propagated by roots. In my opinion it is better suited for i^astur- 
age than hay, as it is rather short and hard when cured. I have 
had so many applications for Guinea Grass that I have been in- 
duced to import some from Jamaica, where it is used altogether 
for pasturage. It seems to grow rank, but so far I am not ena- 
abled to pass an opinion upon it 5 it looks rather coarse for hay. 
Having tried Guinea Grass I have come to the conclusion that it 
will not answer for hiTe, from the fact that it will freeze out every 
year. It will produce a large quantity of hay or green fodder, 
but has to be resown every spring. The seeds that are raised 
here are light, and do not germinate freely. To import seed every 
year is rather troublesome. The Johnson Grass advertised by 
v^ome as Guinea Grass is not Guinea Grass j it is much coarser, 
and can hardly be destroyed after having taken hold of a piece of 
ground. Some are enthusiastic about Alfalfa or Lucerne 5 others, 
whose opinion ought also to be respected, say it will not do here. 
There exists a great difference of opinion in regard to which grass 
seed is most suitable for the South. 

Red Clover. Should be sown either during fall or early in 
spring. Six to eight pounds to an acre. 

White Dutch Clover. A grass sown for pasturage at 
the rate of four to six pounds to the acre. Should be sown in 
early spring. 

Alsike Clover. This is also called Hybrid Clover. It is 
a native of Sweden, a cold climate, and does not succeed so well 
here as the other kinds, because of burning out in summer. 

Alfalfa or Chili Clover, or French Liiicerne. This 
variety does well here, but the ground has to be well prepared, 
and deeply plowed. It will not do in low, wet ground. Should 
be sown in January or February 5 eight to ten pounds per acre. 
(See letter of E. M. Hudson at end of Seed Catalogue. ) 

Kentucky Blue Grass. (Extra Cleaned.) Should be 
sown in dry soil. Two bushels per acre. 

Orchard Grass. This is one of the best grasses for pas- 
turing. It grows quickly, much more so than the Blue G-rass. 
Can be sown either in fail or spring. Sow one to one and a half 
bushel per acre. (See extract from "Farmers' Book of Grasses.") 

Rescue Grass. A forage plant from Australia. It grows 
during winter. Sow the seed in the fall of the year, but not be- 



For the Southern States. 



71 



fore the weather gets cool, as it will not sprout so long as the 
ground is warm. (See letter of Thomas B. Hopkins.) 

Hungarian Grass. This is a valuable annual forage plant 
and good to make hay. Sow three pecks to the acre. It should 
be cut when in bloom. 

German Millet. Of all the Millets this is the best. It 
makes good hay, and produces heavily. Three pecks sown to the 
acre broadcast secures a good stand. Can be sown from April 
till June, but the former month is the best time. Should be cut 
the same as the foregoing kind. 

Kye. Is sown during the fall months as late as December 
for forage, and for pasturage during winter and spring. 

Barley, Fall. Can be sown fall and winter, but requires 
strong, good soil. Used here for forage during its green state. 

Reel or Rust Proof Oats. It is only a few years since 
these oats have come into general cultivation. They are very val- 
uable and will save a great deal of corn on a farm. The seed of 
this variety has a reddish cast, and a peculiar long beard, and is 
very heavy. It is the only kind which will not rust in the South- 
ern climate. They can be sown as early as October, but should 
be pastured down as soon as they commence to joint, till Febru- 
ary. When the ground is low, or the season wet this cannot well 
be done without destroying the whole crop. During January and 
February is the proper time, if no pasturing can be done. One 
to one auvl a half bushel per acre is sufficient. These oats have 
a tendency to stool, and therefore do not require as much per acre 
as common oats. Those who have not already tried this variety 
should do so. 

Sorg^hum. Is planted for feeding stock during the spring 
and early summer. For this purpose it should be sown as early 
in spring as possible in drills about two to three feet apart 5 three 
to four quarts per acre. It makes excellent green fodder, 

Broom Corn. Can be planted the same as corn, but the 
hills closer together in the row. Six quarts will plant an acre. 

East India Millet. My Almanac of 1879 gave a full des- 
cription of this forage plant, written by E. M. Hudson, Esq. It 
has proven to be all that has been claiuied for it. Price per lb. — . 

Vermillionville, Louisiana, October 10th, 1881. 

Mr. EICHAED FEOTSOHEE, New Orleans, La. 
Dear Sir : 

In complying with your request to give you my experience in 
the cultivation of Rescue-Grass^ I do not propose to throw any 
more light upon the subject, nor to present any new features to 
those who are acquainted with this grass, but simply to state a 
few plain facts that may be of some value to those who are ac- 
quainted with it. 

This grass was first brought to my notice about twenty years 
since as California Oats. I afterwards learned its true name to 
be Rescue Grass, though it is known to a great many farmers in 
this neighborhood by the name of ^'Iverson Grass," and is re- 
garded in this section of the coantry, by those acquainted with it. 



72 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

as a most valuable winter grass, for it is a growth only of cold, 
weather, the seed n<-ver germiuating during warm weather, no 
matter when planted. 

My method, when wishing to start a new plot of it, is to 
plough the ground once or twice during the summer to get it in a 
thoroughly pulverized condition before sowing the seed in the 
early fall; and if the ground is not naturally rich, put on about 
enough manure to make a good corn crop. (The richer the land 
the better the pasture, and the faster the grass will grow, if soil- 
ing is the object for which it is used.) Then, about the first of 
September I replough the ground, sowing the seed immediately 
after, and barrow '^ them in " as you would do small grain. This 
puts them in, in good condition, and early enough, in this climate, 
to insure their coming up with the first cold weather in the month 
of September or October. Nothing more is necessary to be done 
to insure you a good pasture by Christmas. I usually sow about 
two bushels of seed to the arpent, but if soiling is the object for 
which it is sown, then three or even four bushels are not too much, 
for the thicker it stands, if the land is rich, the quicker will it be 
high enough for the sickle. 

I have a small plot of this grass in my garden, 30x84 feet, 
which I use for soiling. From this little plot I fed during all of 
last winter (and you know how severe the winter was), twelve 
head of grown sheep with their lambs, in all 20 head, and upon 
this grass, with a few cotton-seed and turnips, they kept in excel- 
lent condition, yielding me in the spring a heavy fleece of wool. 
After the winter was over, the grass upon this plot went to seed, 
from which I gathered 150 lbs. of clean seed, leaving enough on 
the ground to re-seed it. 

This grass ripens its seed early in May, then dies, giving 
ample time to plant the ground in any crop that will not require 
ploughing after the first or middle of September, when the seed 
will again spring up, giving a good pasture the following winter 
and spring, and I have yet to find the animal or fowl that is not 
fond of this grass, and but few things afford fowls more food 
during winter than this grass. But I would advise those planting 
it never to let the foot of a goose touch it, for his foot is like red- 
hot iron to all winter pastures. 

Should those wishing co plant this grass not have ground 
naturally rich, and are not prepared with manures to make it so, 
then let them sow any land, even the poorest, and it will give 
them some pasture until March. Then take otf their stock and 
allow the grass to ripen seed, which turn under with the straw, 
weeds, etc. As soon as this straw, weeds, etc., rots a little plant 
the ground in field peas, which turn under again in the fall early 
enough for i:he grass seed to come up with the first cool weather, 
and it will astonish any one who has never tried it to see how much 
their i)astures will be improved the following winter. By follow- 
ing this plan for a few years the poorest of land can be made rich. 
I am treating a good size pasture of this grass in this way at 
present, and know whereof I write. 

With this grass for winter and Bermuda grass for summer 



For the Southern States. 



73 



pasture, sheep will keep rolling fat the year rouud, and conse- 
quently, give a much heavier clip of wool iu tlie spring than if 
only fat during summer. 

I have never known a winter, in this climate, so cold but that 
this grass would continue to grow and furnish pasture or soiling 
the entire winter, and large cotton-fields might be kept covered 
with this grass by once sowing them, and in the spring, when bed- 
ding up for the next crop, leave about two or three furrows un- 
broken, to be broken out after the seed are ripe in May, which 
would furnish seed enough for the entire land, and the ploughing 
and harrowing necessary to make the cotton crop would suffi- 
ciently scatter the seed over the land, and my word for it, they 
will not germinate until the cotton is laid by in the fall. Thus 
many a poor old cow and horse would be ^^ Rescued ^^ from starva- 
tion during the winter that would otherwise be '' gathered home 
to their fathers." 

I agree with you perfectly that *' The Grass Question'- is one 
of vast importance, and especially is it so to the farmers of the 
South, and if they would give it more attention, in a few years 
their cotton crops would be entire profit, and not go Jl^^orth and 
West to buy corn, bacon and mules. 

But for fear you may think me too much of an enthusiast, I 
will close my letter by saying that if you find anything in it you 
think of any value to your many friends of the South, you are at 
liberty to use it as you see proper, and I remain, as ever. 



Your friend. 



THOS.B. HOPKINS. 



The following extracts have been taken, by permission from 
the author. Dr. D. L. Phares, from his book just published, 
" Farmers' Book of Grasses." It is the most valuable work of the 
kind ever published in the South, and should be in the hands of 
every one who takes an interest in the cultivation of grasses. 

Copies for sale at publisher's price. Paper covers, 60 cents ; 
Cloth, $1.00 postage paid. 

OECHAED GEASS. 

{JDactylis Glomerata. ) 

Of all the grasses this is one of the most widely diffused, 
growing in Africa, Asia, every country of Europe and all our 
States. It is more highly esteemed and commended than any 
other grass, by a larger number of farmers in most countries — a 
most decided proof of its great value and wonderful adaptations 
to many soils, climates and treatments. Yet, strange to say, 
though growing in England for many centuries, it was not appre- 
ciated in that country till carried there from \^irginia in 17G4. 
But, as in the case of Timothy, soon after its introduction from 
America, it came into high favor among farmers, and still retains 
its hold on their estimation as a grazing and hay crop. 

Kor is this strange when its many advantages and points of 
excellence are considered. It will grow well on any soil contain- 
ing sufficient clay and not holding too much water. If the laud 
5 



74 Richard Frotsclierh Almanac and Garden Manual 

be too tenacious, drainage will remedy the soil 5 if worn out, a top 
dressing of stable manure will give it a good send-off, and it will 
furnish several good mowings the first year. It grows well be- 
tween 290 and 48° lattitude. It may be mowed from two to four 
times a year according to the lattitude, season and treatment ; 
yielding from one to three tons of excellent hay per acre on poor 
to medium land. In grazing and as hay most animals select it in 
preference among mixtures in other grasses. In lower latitudes 
it furnishes good winter grazing, as well as for Spring, Summer 
and Fall. After grazing or mowing few grasses grow so rapidly 
(three or six inches per week), and are so soon ready again for 
tooth or blade. It is easily cured and handled. It is readily 
seeded, and catches with certainty. Its long, deeply penetrat:ng, 
fibrous roots enable it to sustain itself and grow vigorously dur- 
ing droughts that dry up other grasses, except tall oat grass, which 
has similar roots and characteristics. It grows well in open lands 
and in forests of large trees, the underbrush being all cleared off. 
I have had it grow luxuriantly even in beech woods where the 
roots are superficial, in the crotches of roots and close to the 
trunks of trees. The hay is of high quality, and the young grass 
contains a larger per cent, of nutritive digestible matter than any 
other grass. It thrives well without any renewal on the same 
ground for thirty-five, nay forty years 5 how much longer I am not 
able to say. It is easily exterminated when the land is desired 
for other crops. Is there any other grass for which so much can 
be said ? l 

EED TOP GEASS. ^ 

{Agrostis Vulgaris.) 

'l?his is the bent grass of England, the herd grass of the South- 
ern States ; not in honor of any man, but probably because so 
well adapted to the herd. It is called also Fine Top, Burden's 
and Borden's Grass. Varying greatly in characters according to 
soil, location, climate and culture, some botanists have styled it 
A. Folymorpha. It grows two to three feet high, and I have mown 
it when four feet high. It grows well on hill-tops and sides, in 
ditches, gullies and marshes, but delights in moist bottom land. 
It is not injured by overflows though somewhat prolonged. In 
marshy land it produces a very dense, strong network of roots 
capable of sustaining the weight of men and animals walking- 
over it. 

It furnishes considerable grazing during warm ^'spells" in win- 
ter, and in spring and summer an abundant supply of nutrition. 
It has a tendency, being very hardy, to increase in density af 
growth and extent of surface, and will continue indefinitely, 
though easily subdued by the plow. 

Out before maturing seed, it makes a good hay and large quan- 
tity. It seems to grow taller in the Southern States, than it does 
further north, and to make more and better hay and grazing. It 
and timothy being adapted to the same soils, and maturing at the 
same time do well together and produce an excellent hay. But 
the red top will finally root out the timothy— if pastured much it 
will do so sooner. 



For the Southern States, 



75 



Sow about two bushels (24 lbs.) per acre, if alone, in Septem- 
ber, October, February or March; if with timothy ibr hay, from 
6 to 10 pounds ; if with other grasses for pasture, 3 to 5 pounds. 
It is an excellent pasture grass, and will grow on almost any kind 
of soil. 

KENTUCKY BLUE GRASS. 
[Poa Pratensis.) 

This is called also smooth meadow grass, spear grass, and green 
grass, all three very appropriate, characteristic names. But Blue 
is a misnomer for this grass. It is not blue, but * green as grass ' 
and the greenest of grasses. The P. compressa, flat-stalked meadow 
grass, wire grass, blue grass is blue, the 'true blue' grass from 
which the genus received its trivial name. 

Kentucky blue grass, known also in the Eastern States as June 
grass, although esteemed in some parts of America as the best 
of all pasture grasses, seems not to be considered very valuable 
among English farmers except in mixtures. It is certainly a very 
desirable pasture grass however. Its very narrow leaves, one, 
two or more feet long, are in such profusion and cover the ground 
to such depth with their luxuriant growth that a mere descrip- 
tion could give no one an adequate idea of its beauty, quantity 
and value; that is on rich laud. On poor, sandy land, it dege- 
nerates sadly as to other things uncongenially located. 

Perennial and bearing cold and drought well, it furnishes graz- 
ing a large part of the year. It is specially valuable as a winter 
and spring grass for the South. To secure the best winter re- 
sults, it should be allowed a good growth in early fall, so that the 
ends of the leaves being killed by frost afford an ample covering 
for the under parts which continue to grow all winter and afford 
a good bite whenever required by sheep, cattle, hogs and horses. 
In prolonged summer drought, it dries completely, so that if fired, 
it would burn off' clean. Bat this occurs in Kentucky, where in- 
deed it has seemed, without fire, to disappear utterly; yet when 
rain came, the bright green spears promptly recarpeted the earth. 

With its underground stems and many roots, it sustains the 
heat and drought of the Southern States as well as those of Ken- 
tucky ; where indeed it is subjected to severer trials of this kind 
than in the more Southe-rn States. In fact, it bears the vicissi- 
tudes of our climate about as well as Bermuda grass, and is 
nearly as nutritious. 

Blue grass grows well on hill tops, slopes, or bottom lands, if 
not too wet and too poor. It may be sown any time from Sep- 
tember till April, preferably perhaps in the latter half of Febru- 
ary, or early in March. The best catch I ever had was sown the 
20th of March, on unbroken land, from which trash, leaves, etc., 
has just been burned. The surface of the land should be cleaned 
of trash of all kinds, smooth, even ; and if recently plowed and 
harrowed, it should be rolled also. This last proceeding is for 
compacting the surface in order to prevent the seed from sinking 
too deep in the ground. Without harrowing or brushing in, 
many of them get in too deep to come up, even when the surface 
of the land has had the roller over it. The first rain after seed- 



76 Richard Frotsclier^s Almanac and Garden lilannal 

iDg will pot them in deep enough, as the seeds are very minute, 
aud the spears of grass small as fine needles, and therefore unable 
to get out from under heavy cover. These spears are so small as 
to be invisible, except to close examination, and in higher lati- 
tudes, this condition continues through the first year. Thus, 
some who have sown the blue grass seed, seeing the first year no 
grass, imagine they have been cheated, plant some other crop, 
and probably lose what close inspection would liave shown to be 
a good catch. This, however, is not apt to occur in the Southern 
tier of States, as the growth here is more rapid. The sowing- 
mentioned above, made on the 20th of March, came up promptly, 
and in threfe months the grass was from six to ten inches high. 
One year here gives a finer growth and show than two in Ken- 
tucky or any other State so far north. 

Sown alone, 20 to 26 pounds; that is, 2 bushels, should be 
used. In mixtures, 4 to 6 pounds. 

"^^^Z, ElN-GLISH OE PERENNIAL RYE GRASS. 
Lolium perenne. 

This is the first grass cultivated in England, over two centu- 
ries ago, and at a still more remote ])eriod in France. It was 
long more widely known and cultivated than any other grass, 
became adapted to a great variety of soils and conditions, and a 
vast number (seventy or more) varieties produced; some of 
which were greatly improved, while others were inferior and be- 
came annuals. Introduced into the United States in the first 
quarter of the current century, it has never become very popular, 
although shown by the subjoined analysis of Way not to be de- 
ficient in nutritive matter. In 100 parts of the dried grass cut 
in bloom were albuminoids 11.85, fat'y matters 3,17, heat-pro- 
ducing principles 42.24, woody fibre 35.20, ash 7.54. The more 
recent analysis ot Wolff and Knop, allowing for water, gives 
rather more nutritive matter than this. 

It grows rapidly and yields heavy crops of seed, makes good 
grazing and good hay. But as with all ihe Rye grasses, to make 
good hay it must be cut before passing the blossom stage, as af- 
ter that it deteriorates rapidly. The roots being short, it does 
not bear drought well aud exhausts the soil, dying out in a few 
years. In these respects it is liable to the same objections as 
timothy. The stem one to two feet high, has four to six purplish 
joints and as many dark green leaves. The fiexuous spiked pan- 
icle bearing the distant spikelets, one in each bend. 

It should be sown in August or September, at the rate of twen- 
ty-five or thirty i)ouuds or one bushel seed per acre. 

TALL MEADOW OAT GRASS. 

(Arrhenatlierum Avenaceum.) 

Evergreen grass in Yirginia, and other Southern States, and it 
is the Tall Oat (Aveua elatior) of Linnaeus. It is closely related 
to the common oat, and has a beautiful open panicle, leaning 
slightly to one side. ^^' Spikelets two-flowered, and a rudiment 



For tJie Southeru States. 



I i 



of a third, open 5 lowest flower stamiiiate or sterile, with a long- 
bent awn below the middle of the back." — Flint.) 

It is widely naturalized and well adapted to a gTeat variety of 
soils. On saudy, or gravelly soils, it succeeds admirably, grow- 
ing- two or three feet high. On rich, dry upland it grows from 
five to seven feet high. It has an abundance ot perennial, long 
fibrous roots, penetrating deeply in the soil, being therefore less 
affected by drought or cold, and enabled to yield a lnro;e quantity 
of foliage, winter and summer. These advantages render it one 
of the very best grasses for the South, both for grazing (being 
evergreen) and for hay, admitting of being cut twice a year. It 
is probably the best winter grass that can be obtained. 

It will make twice as much hay as timothy, and containing a 
greater quantity of albuminoids, and less of heat producing prin- 
ciples, it is better adapted to the uses of the Southern farmer, 
while it exhausts the surface soil less, and may be grazed indefi- 
nitely, except after mowing. To make good hay it must be cut 
the instant it blooms, and, after cut, must not be wet by dew or 
rain, which damages it greatly in quality and appearanee. 

For green soiling, it may be cut four or five times with favor- 
able seasons. In from six to ten days after blooming, the seeds 
being to ripen and fall, the upper ones first. It is therefore a 
little troublesome to save the seed. As soon as those at the top 
of the panicle ripen sufficiently to begin to drop, the heads should 
be cut off and dried, when the seeds will all thresh out readily 
and be matured. After the seeds are ripe and taken off the long 
abundant leaves and stems are still green, and being mowed, 
make good hay. 

It may be sown in i>Iarch or April, and mowed the same sea- 
son 5 but, for heavier yield, it is better to sow in Se])tember or 
October. Along the more southerly belt, from the 31° parallel 
southward, it may be sown in 5>Iovember and onward till the 
middle of December. V\^henever sown it is one of the most cer- 
tain grasses to have a good catch. Not less than 2 bushels (14 
pounds) per acre should be sown. Like timothy, on inhospitable 
soils, the root may sometimes become bulbous. The average 
annual nutrition yielded by this grass in the Southern belt is 
probably twice as great as in Pennsylvania and other Northern 
States. 

JOHNSON GEASS. 

( Sorghum lialapeyise. ) 

This has been called Cuba grass, Guinea grass, Egyptian grass, 
Means grass, Alabama Guinea grass, etc. 

It seems pretty well agreed now, however, to call this Johnson 
grass, and leave the name Guinea grass for the Fanicum jumen- 
tormn, to which it i)roperly belongs. 

It is true that in Mr. Howard's pamphlet, as well as in many 
periodicals and books, and in letters and common usage, this 
grass has been far more generally called Guinea grass than the 
true Guinea grass itself, thus causing vast confusion. It is, there- 
fore, assuredly time to call each by its right name. Johnson 



78 Eicliard Frotsclier's Almariac and Garden Manual 

grass is perennial and has cane-like roots, or more properly uu- 
dergTound stems, from the size of a goose-quill to tiiar of the lit- 
tle finger. These roots are tender, and hogs are fond of and 
thrive on them in winter. The roots literally fill the ground near 
the surface, and every joint is capable of dereloping a bud. 
Hence the grass is readily propagated from root cuttings. It is 
also propagated from the seed, but not always so certainly ; for 
in some localities many faulty seeds are produced, and in other 
places no seed are matured. Before sowing the seed, thereiore, 
they should be tested, as should all grass seeds indeed, in order 
to know what proportion will germinate, and thus what quantity 
per acre to sow. One bushel of a good sample of this seed is suf- 
ficient for one acre of land. 

The leaf, stalk and panicle of this grass resemble those of other 
sorghums. It grows on any land where corn will grow ; and like 
the latter, the better the land, the heavier the crop. On rich 
land the culms attain a size of over half an inch in diameter and 
a height of seven feet. It should be cut while tender; and then 
all live stock are fond of it ; for a few weeks are sufficient to ren- 
der it so coarse and hard that animals refuse it, or eat sparingly. 

A tew testimonials are here quoted to give an idea of the pro- 
ductiveness and vabae of this plant. In a letter published in the 
Eural Carolinian for 1874, Mr. X. B. Moore, who had for more 
than forty years grown crops, sjoeaks of this grass under the 
name of Guinea grass. 
! ^' My meadow consists of one hundred acres of alluvial land. 
! near Augusta. «= * * In winter I employ but four men, who 
are enough to work my packing-press; in summer, when harvest- 
ing, double that number. In autumn I usually scarify both ways 
with sharp, steel-toothed harrows, and sow over the stubble a 
peck of red clover per acre, wnich, with volunteer vetches, comes 
off about the middle of May. The second yield of clover is uni- 
formly eaten up by grasshoppers. The tap root remains to fer- 
tilize the then coming Guinea grass, which should be cut from 
two to three feet high * * * On such land as mine, it will 
afford three or four cuttings if the season is propitious. I use 
an averHge of five tons of gypsum soon after the first cutting, 
and about the same quantity of the best commercial fertilizers in 
March and April. * * * The grass, which is cut before noon, 
is put up with horse sulky rakes, in cocks, before sundown.*' 

Mr. Moore's income from this field was from seven thousand to 
ten thousand dollars a year. 

Mr. Goelsel, of Mobile, says : ^' It is undoubtedly the most 
profitable soiling phmr yet introduced, and also promises to be 
the plant for our Southera hay stacks, provided it can be cut 
every three or four weeks.-' 

XoTE — Eecognizing all the above, I would say, that great care 
must be taken not to sow this grass near cultivated lauds. If 
done, it should not be allowed to go to seed, as the wind will 
blow them off' from the stalks, and when it gets amongst cane or 
other crops, it causes a great deal of trouble. It is almost impos- 
sible to set it out of the land. 



For the Southern States. 



79 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 



The directions given here are for the Southern part of Louis- 
iana. If applied to localities North of here, the time of planting 
will not be quite as early in spring, and earlier in fall. For in- 
stance: the directions for January will answer for February in 
the Northern part of this State and Southern part of Mississippi 
or Arkansas. In autumn, directions for September can be fol- 
lowed in August. In those sections, very little can be planted in 
November and December. 



JANUARY. 

Sow Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnips and Leeks, 
the early varieties of Eadish, and for the last crop, the Black 
Spanish. 

Sow Spring and Purple Top Turnip. Ruta Baga may also be 
sown, for table use later in spring. 

Sow Lettuce, Endive, Cabbage, Broccoli, Kohlrabi and early 
Cauliflower ; the latter best sown in a frame to be transplanted 
next month. 

Cress, Chervil, Parsley and Celery for cutting, should be sown 
this month. Sow Roquette and Sorrel. 

If the hot-bed has not been prepared already, make it at once 
to sow Egg Plant, Pepper and Tomatoes. 

All kinds of Herb seed may be sown during this month. Plant 
Peas for a general crop, towards the end of the month the Extra 
Early varieties may be planted. 

Plant Potatoes, but the Early Rose should not be planted be- 
fore the latter end of this month. 

Divide and transplant Shallots. Transplant Cabbage plants 
sown in November. Onions, if not already set out, should be 
hurried with now, so they may have time to bulb. Those who de- 
sire to raise Onion sets, should sow the seed this month, as they 
may be used for setting out early in the fall, and can be sold 
sooner than those raised from seed. Creole seed is the only kind 
which can be used to raise sets from. Northern seed will not make 
sets. This I know from experience. Asparagus roots should be 
set out this month. 

Red Oats can be sown. I consider these and German Millet 
the two best forage plants for Louisiana. 

Cucumbers can be planted in the hot- bed; they are mostly 
planted here during November and December, but if the hot-bed 
is properly made those planted in this month will bear better than 
those planted in November. 

FEBRUARY. 

All winter vegetebles can be sown this month, such as Spin- 
ach, Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip and Leeks. Also, the early 



80 Eicliard Frotschers Almanac and Garden ILanual 

varieties of Eadishes and Spring and Purple Top Turnip, Swiss 
Chard and Kohlrabi. 

Sow for succession Lettuce. Cabbage and E;trly Cauliflower: 
if the season is favorable and the month of April not too dry the 
latter may succeed. 

Cauliflower and Cabbage plants should be transplanted: Shal- 
lots divided and set out again. 

Sow Sorrel. Eoquette, Chervil, Parsley. Cress and Celery. 

Peas of all kinds can be planted, especially the early varieties. 
The late kinds should be sown in January, but they may be plant- 
ed during this month. 

This is the time to plant the general crop of Potatoes. On 
an average they will succeed better when planted during this, 
than during any other month. 

Herb seeds should b*- planted, tender varieties best sown in 
a frame, and transplanted into the open ground afterwards. 

AsiDaragus roots should be planted: this is the proper month 
to sow the seed of this vegetable. 

Plants in the hot-bed will require attention; give air when 
the sun shines and the weather is pleasant. If too thick, thin 
out so they may become sturdy. 

Bush Beans can be commenced with this month : Cucumbers, 
Squash and Melons may be tried, as they often succeed: if pro- 
tected by small boxes, as most gardeners protect them, there is 
no risk at all. 

Corn can be planted towards the end of this month. For 
market, the Adams Extra Early and Early White Flint are plant- 
ed. I recommend the Sugar varieties for family use: they are 
just as large as those mentioned, and StoweFs Evergreen is as 
large as any variety grown. 

Mangel Wurtzel and Sugar Beet should be sown This month 
for stock. Sweet Potatoes can be put in a bed for sprouting, so 
as to have early slips. 

MARCH. 

Sow Beets, Eadish. Cabbage, early varieties: Kohlrabi. Let- 
tucOj Spinach, Mustard, Carrots. Swiss Chard and Leek. 

Also, Celery tor cutting, Parsley, Eoquette, Cress and Cher- 
vil. The latter part of the month sow Endive. Of Lettuce, the 
Eoyal Cabbage and Perpignan : the White Coss is a favorite va- 
riety for spring: the Butterhead will run into seed too quickly 
and should not be sown later than the middle of February in this 
latitude. 

Plant a full supply of Bush and Pole Beans. For LimaBeans 
better to wait till towards the end cf the month, as they rot easily 
when the ground is not warm enough, or too wet. 

Squash, Cucumbers, Melons and Okra can be planted. The 
remark in regard to Lima Beans holds good for Okra. Early va- 
rieties of Peas may still be planted. 

Tomatoes. Egg Plants and Peppers can be set out in the open 
ground, and seed sown for a later crop. Plant Sweet Corn. 



For the Southern States. 



81 



Potatoes can be planted; all depends upon the season. Some 
years they do as well as those planted during last month. 

Beans are hard to keep in this climate, and therefore very 
few are planted for shelling purposes. With a little care, how- 
ever, they can be kept, but they ought not to be planted before 
the first of August, so that they may ripen wlien the weather gets 
cooler. When the season is favorable leave them out till dry ; 
gather the pods and expose them a few days to the sun. It is 
best to shell them at once, and after they are shelled put them to 
air and sun again for a few days longer. Sacks are better to keep 
them in, than barrels or boxes. The Red and White Kidney are 
generally the varieties used for drying. Beans raised in spring 
are hard to keep, and if intended for seed they should be put up 
in bottles, or in tin boxes, and a little camphor sprinkled between 
them. 

Sweet potatoes should be planted. 

APRIL. 

Sow Bush, Pole and Lima Beans, Sweet Corn, Cucumber, 
Squash, Melons and Okra. 

Beets, Carrots, Swiss Chard, Eadish, Lettuce, Mustard, En- 
dive, Roquette, Cress, Parsley, Chervil and Celery for cutting. 

Sow Tomatoes, Egg Plant and Pepper for succession. It is 
rather late to sow Cabbage seed now, but if sown, the early va- 
rieties only can be successfully used. Kohlrabi can still be sown^ 
but it is best to sow it thinly in drills a foot apart, and thin out 
to four inches in the rows. 

Towards the end of this month a sowing of the Late Italian 
Giant Cauliflower can be made. It is very large, and takes from 
eight to nine months before it matures, so has to be sown early. 
It is always best to make a couple of sowings, so that in case one 
should fail the other may be used. This variety is hardier than 
the French and German kinds. A good plan is to sow the seed 
in boxes, elevated two feet or more above the ground, as it will 
keep the cabbage-fly off. The plants should be overlooked daily, 
and all green cabbage worms or other vermin removed. 

Sweet Potato Slips, for early crop, can be planted out. Early 
Irish Potatoes will be fit to dig now, and the ground they are 
taken out of may be planted with Corn, Beans, Squash, etc. 

Sow Pumpkins of both kinds, the Field and the Cashaw. 

German Millet should be sown this month. The ground 
ought to be well plowed and harrowed. Three pecks of seed is 
the quantum to be sown per acre. It will be well to roll the 
ground after sowing, and the seed will require no other covering. 
If no roller is handy, some brush tied together ought to be passed 
over the ground sown. For hay, it should be cut when in flower. 
Every planter should give it a trial. 



MAY. 

Yery few varieties of vegetables can be sown during this 
month. Many of the winter varieties will not do well if sown 



82 BicJiard Frotselier's Almanac and Garden Manual 

uow. The grounds should now be occupied with, growing crops. 

Where Potatoes and Onions are taken up, Corn, Melons, Cu- 
cumbers, Squash and Pumpkin may be planted. 

i^othing of the Cabbage kind, except the Creole Cabbage 
seed, can be sown this month. It is supposed to stand the heat 
better than the other varieties, but it makes only loose heads, and 
runs up to seed as early as the end of November. 

Yellow and white summer Radish and Endive should be sown. 
Lettuce requires much water during hot weather, and if neglected, 
it will become hard and tasteless. The Perpignan is the best kind 
for summer use. Okra can still be sown. 

The tirst sowing of White Solid Celery is to be made this 
month. The seed requires to be shaded, and if the weather is 
dry, should be regularly watered. Late Italian Cauliflower should 
be sown. 

Cow Peas can be planted between the corn, or the crowders 
in rows; the latter are the best to be used green. If they are 
sown for fertilizing purposes, they are sown one bushel per acre, 
and plowed under when the ground is well covered; or sometimes 
they are left till fall, when they commence to decay, and then 
plowed down. 

Sweet Potato Slips can be set out, taking advantage of an 
occasional rain; if it does not rain they have to be watered. The 
tops of Shallots will commence to get dry ; this indicates that 
they are fit to take up. Pull them up and expose to the sun for 
a few days and then store them away in a dry, airy place, taking 
care not to lay them too thick, as they are liable to heat. Lima 
and Pole Beans can be planted ; the Southern Prolific is the best 
variety for late planting. 

JUNE. 

Tills mouth is similar to the last, that is, not a great deal can 
be sown. The growing crops will require attention, as weeds grow 
fast. Plant Corn for the last supply of roasting ears, A few 
Water and Musk Melons may be planted. Cucumbers, Squash 
and Pumpkin planted this month generally do very well, but the 
first requires an abundance of water if the weather is dry. 

Southern Prolific Pole Beans may be planted daring this 
month. Continue to set out Sweet Potato Vines. 

Sow Yellow and White Summer Radish, sow Endive for salad; 
this is raised more easily than the Lettuce. 

Lettuce can be sown, but it requires more care than most 
people are willing to bestow. Soak the seeds for half an hour in 
water, take them out and put them in a piece of cloth and place 
in a cool spot, under the cistern, or if convenient, in an ice-box. 
Keep the cloth moist and in two or three days the seeds will 
sprout. Then sow them; best to do so in the evening and give a 
watering. 

If the seed is sown without being sprouted, ants will be likely 
to carry it away before it can germinate, and the seedsman be 
blamed for selling seed that did not grow. This sprouting has to 
be done from May to September, depending upon the weather. 



For the Southern States. 



83 



Should the weather be moist and cool ia the fall it cau be dis- 
pensed with. Some sow late Cabbage for winter crop in this 
mouth, saying' that the plants are easier raised during this than 
the two following months. I consider this month too soon ; plants 
will become too hard, and long-legged before they can be planted 
out. 

This is the last month to sow the Late Italian * Cauliflower ; 
towards the end, the Early Italian Giant Cauliflower can be 
sown. Some cultivators transplant them, when large enough, at 
once into the open ground ; others plant them first into flower- 
pots and transplant them into the ground later. If transplanted 
at this time, they will require to be shaded for a few days, till 
they commence to grow. 

Sow Tomatoes for late crop during the latter part of this month. 

JULY. 

Plant Pole Beans ; also Bush Beans towards the end of the 
month. Sow Tomatoes in the early part for the last crop. Some 
Corn for roasting ears may still be planted. Cucumbers can be 
planted for pickling. Early Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Sow 
Endive, Lettuce, Yellow and White Summer Radish. Where the 
ground is new, some Turnips and Ruta Bagas can be sown. Cab- 
bage should be commenced with after the 15th of this month; 
Superior Flat Dutch, Improved Drumhead, St. Denis, or Bon- 
neuil and Brunswick are the leading kinds. It is hard to say 
which is the best time to sow, as our seasons differ so much — 
some seasons we get frost early, other seasons not before Jan- 
uary. Cabbage is most easily hurt by frost when it is half grown; 
when the plants art^ small, or when they are headed up, frost does 
not hurt much. It is always good to make two or three sowings. 
As a general thing, plants raised from July and August sown 
seed, give the most satisfaction; they are almost certain to head. 
September, in my experience, is the most ticklish month ; as the 
seed sown in that month is generally only half grown when 
we have some frosts, and therefore more liable to be hurt. But 
there are exceptions; four years ago the seed sown in September 
turned out best. Seed sown at the end of October and during 
November generally give good results, but if planted for market, 
will not bring as much as Cabbage sown in July and August. 
Brunswick is the earliest of the large growing kinds, and it 
should be sown in July and August, so that it may he headed up 
when the cold comes, as it is more tender than the Flat Dutch 
and Drumhead. The same may be said in regard to the St. Denis. 
All Cabbages require strong, good soil, but these two varieties 
particularly. Brunswick makes also a very good spring cabbage 
when sown at the end of October. The standard varieties, the 
Superior Flat Dutch and Improved Drumhead, should be sown 
at the end of this month and during next. It is better to sow 
plenty of seeds than to be short of plants. I would prefer one 
hundred plants raised in July and August to four times that 
amount raised in September. It is very hard to protect the young 
plants from the ravages of the fly. Strong tobacco water is as 



84 EicJiard FrotscJier^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

good as anything else for this purpose, or tobacco stems cut line 
and scattered over the ground will keep them off to some extent. 
As the ])lanrs have to be watered, the smell of the tobacco will 
drive the flies away. 

AUGUST. 

This is a very active month for gardening in the South. Plant 
Bush Beans, Extra Early and Washington Peas. Sow late Cab- 
bages and Drumhead Savoy, also Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts and 
Kale. The Early Italian Giant Oaulidower may still be sown, 
but riow IS the proper time to sow the Half Early Paris, Asiatic 
and other early varieties^. 

Sow Parsley, Roquette, Chervil, Lettuce, Endive and Sorrel; 
but in case of dry weather, these seeds will have to be watered 
frequently. 

Continue to sow Yellow Turnip Eadishes, and commence to 
sow red varieties, such as scarlet Turnip, Half Long French, and 
Long Scarlet. 

Towards the end of the month the Black Spanish Kadisli can 
be sown ; also, Swiss Chard. 

Sow Mustard and Cress; the former will generally do well. 
All kinds of turnips and Ruta Bagas should be sown ; also, Kohl- 
rabi. 

The seeds of all kinds of Beets should be put in the ground. 

Towards the end of the month Carrots can be sown; but the 
sowing of all vegetables at this time of the year depends much 
upon the season. If we should have hot and dry weather, it is 
useless to do much, as seed can not come up without being water- 
ed. White Solid Celery should be sown for a succession, and the 
Dwarf kinds for spring use. 

Shallots can be set out during this month; also Onion Sets, 
especially if thej are raised from Creole seed. The early part of 
the month is the proper time to plant Red and White Kidney 
Beans, for shelling and drying for winter use. 

Early Rose and otber varieties of Potatoes should be planted 
early this month for a winter croj), and the latest of Tomato 
plants should be set out, if not rione last month. If Celery 
plants are set out during this month they require to be shaded. 

SEPTEMBER. 

Most of the seeds recommended for last month can be sown 
this, and some more added. 

In the early part Bush Beans can be planted, as they will bear 
before frost comes. Plant Extra Early and early varieties of peas. 
Sow Radishes of all kinds, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip, Salsify, Ro- 
quette. Chervil, Parsley, Sorrel, Cress, Lettuce, Endive, Leek, 
Turnips, Kohlrabi, Broccoli, Early Cauliflower, Kale, Celery, 
Corn Salad and Mustard. 

After the fifteenth of this month Creole Onion seed can be 
sown. This is an important crop, and should not be neglected. 
If it is very dry, cover the bed, after the seed has been sown, 
with green moss; it will keep the ground moist, and the seed 



For the Southern States. 



S5 



will come up more regularly. The moss has to be takeu off as 
the young' plants make their appearance. 

Celery plants may be set out in ditches i)repared for that i)ur- 
pose. Oauliiiower and Cabbage plants can be transplanted if the 
weather is favorable. 

If the weather is not too hot and dry, Spinach should be sown ; 
but it is useless to do so if the weather is not suitable. 

Cabbage can be sown, but it is much better to sow in August 
and transplant during this month. 

Set out Shallots. Sorrel should be divided and replanted. 

Sow Turnip rooted Celery. 

OCTOBER. 

Artichokes should be dressed, the suckers or sprouts taken off, 
and new plantings made. 

Onion seed can still be sown ; but it is better to get the seed 
into the ground as soon as possible, so the plants get to be some 
size before the cold weather comes. 

Towards the end of the month, Black Eye Marrowfat Peas can 
be planted ; also, English or Windsor Beans. 

Sow Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts, Kale, 
Spinach, Mustard, Swiss Chard, Carrots, Beets, Salsify, Leek, 
Corn Salad, Parsley, Eoquette, Chervil, Kohlrabi, Radish, Let- 
tuce, Endive and Parsnip. Shallots from the first planting can 
be divided, and set out again. Salsify does very finely here, but 
is geuerally sown too late ; this is the proper month to sow the 
seed. The ground should be mellow and have been manured last 
spring. It should be spaded up very deeply,* as the size and 
smoothness of the roots depend upon the preparation of the 
soil- 
Water the Celery with soap-suds, and if the season has been 
favorable, by the end of this month some may be earthed up. 

Sow Rye, Barley and Red Oats, Orchard Grass, Red and White 
Clover, and Alfalfa Clover. Strawberry plants should be trans- 
planted; they can not be left in the same spot for three or four 
years, as is done ivTorth. The Wilson's Albany and Longworth's 
Prolific are the favorite varieties for the market. 

The Wilson's Albany do not make many runners here, but they 
form a stool something like the plants of violets, and these stools 
have to be taken up and divided. 

NOVEMBER. 

Continue to sow Spinach, Corn Salad, Radish, Lettuce, Mus- 
tard, Roquette, Parsley, Chervil, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnip, Cress 
and Endive, also Turnips and Cabbage. Superior Flat Dutch 
and Improved Drumhead, sown in this month, make fine cabbage 
in the spring. 

Artichoke should be dressed, if not already done last month. 

Sow Black Eye and other late varieties of Peas. Frost does 
not hurt them as long as they are small, and during this time of 
the year, they will grow but very slowly. English beans can be 
planted; frost does not hurt them, and if not planted soon, they 
will not bear much. 



PLANTERS' AND GARDENERS' PRICE LIST. 



Cost of Mailing Seeds. Orders for ouuces and ten cent papers 
are mailed free of postage, except Beans, Peas and Corn. If any 
of these in large papers are ordered by mai], postage mast be paid 
by the purchaser, or I will send small sized papers and prepay 
the postage. On large sized papers of some varieties of Beans 
and Peas, the postage will cost more than the papers of same. On 
orders by the pound and quart an advance of sixteen cents per 
pound and thirty cents per quart, must be added to quotations 
for postage. 
Articiioke. per oz. per lb. 

Large Green Globe $0 50 $5 00 

Asparagus, 

Large Purple Top 10 100 

Beans, (Dwakf, Snap or Bush,) per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Six Weeks or Newiugton Wonder. . .^0 25 .^1 00 

Early Red Speckled Valentine 25 1 00 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks 25 100 

Early Yellow Six Weeks 25 100 

Dwarf German W^ax, (Stringless) 30 1 20 

White Kidney 20 75 

Red Speckled French 20 80 



86 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 

Manure for hot beds should be looked after, and ought not to I 
be over one month old. It should be thrown together In a heap, ; 
and when heated forked over again, so the long and short ma- 
nure will be well mixed. The first vegetables generally sown Id i 
the hot beds are Cucumbers; it is best to start them in two or : 
three inch pots, and when they have two rough leaves, transplant ] 
them to their place; two good plants are sufficient under every j 

DECEMBER. | 

]N"ot a great deal is planted during this mon^b, as the ground is 
generally occupied by growing crops. 

Plant Peas for a general crop ; some potatoes may be risked, 
but it is uncertain whether they will succeed or not. j 

Sow Spinach, Eoquette, Eadisb, Carrots, Lettuce, Endive and 
Cabbage. 

Early varieties of Cauliflower can be sov\^n in a frame or shel- 
tered situation, to be transplanted in February into the open 
ground. Early Cabbages, such as York, Oxheart and Winniug- 
stadt, may be sown. 

To those who wisii to force Tomatoes, I will say that this is the 
month to sow them. The best kind for that purpose is the Extra 
Early Dwarf Eed. It is really a good acquisition ; it is very 
dwarfish, very productive, of good size and bears the fruit in 
clusters. 



Beans — Continued. per quart. 

Early China Red Eyo '25 

Red Kidney 20 

Dwarl Golden Wax (New) 30 

Beans, (Pole or Running), 

Large Lima 50 

Carolina or Sewee 50 

Horticultural or Wren's, Egg . 40 

Dutch Case Knife 40 

German Wax, (Sfcringless) 50 

Southern Prolific 50 

Crease Back 50 

Beans, English. 

Broad Windsor 30 

Beet. per oz. 

Extra Early or Bassano, - . - |0 10 

Simou'H Early Red Turnip 10 

, Early Blood Turnip 10 

Long Blood 10 

"" ■ 10 

10 

- .. 10 

10 

10 



per ^al 



Half Long Blood , 

Egyptian Rtd Turnip 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel. 
White French or Sugar. . . . 
Silver or Swiss Chard 



Borecole or Curled Kale. 

Dwarf German Greens 

Broccoli. 

Purple Cape 

Brussels Sprouts 



15 



30 
30 



Cabbage. 

Early York... -. '25 

Early Large York "25 

Early Sugar Loaf 25 

Early Large Oxheart "25 

Early Wiuningstadt 25 

Jersey Wakefield 50 

Early Flat Dutch 25 

Large Flat Brunswick..., . . . 30 

Fotler's Improved Brunswick :30 

Improved Large Late Drumhead 30 

Superior Large Late Flat Dutch 30 

Red Dutch, (for pickling) 30 

Green Globe Savoy 25 

Early Dwarf Savoy 25 

Drumhead Savoy 25 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil 25 

Cauliflower. 

Extra Early Paris 1 00 

Half Early Paris 100 

Large Asiatic 1 00 

Early Erfurt 1 00 

LeNormaud's Short Stemmed 1 00 

Early Italian Giant 1 00 

Late Italian Giant - , 1 00 

Imperial 1 00 

Carrot. 

Early Scarlet Horn , 10 

Half Long Scarlet French 10 

Half Long Luc 10 

Improved Long Orange 10 



1 00 

75 

1 20 



2 00 
2 00 
150 

1 50 
2U0 

2 00 
2 00 



100 

per lb. 

$100 
75 
75 

75 

1 00 
1 50 
50 

50 

1 25 

100 



4 00 


4 00 


2 50 


2 50 


3 00 


3 00 


3 00 


5 00 


3 00 


4 00 


4 00 


5 00 


5 00 


4 00 


SOO 


3 00 


4 00 


4 00 


12 00 


12 00 


12 00 


15 00 


15 00 


15 00 


15 00 


12 00 


150 


150 


150 


120 



Carrots— Continaed. per oz. per lb 

Long; Rsd, without core, 10 i 50 

St. Valerie (New) 15 1 59 

Celery o 

Large White Solid -.- 30 5 00 

Incomparable Dwarf White 30 4 00 

Sandriugham's Dwarf Whi fce 30 4 00 

Larae Ribbed Dwarf (New) 30 4 00 

Turnip Rooted 30 4 00 

Cutting 15 200 

Cliervil, 

Green Curled , 20 2 50 

Collards , . . . 20 2 50 

Corn Salad 15 2 00 

Corn. per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar , $0 25 |0 80 

Adams' Extra Early 20 60 

Early Sugar or Sweet 20 75 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar 20 75 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed 20 60 

Early Yellow Canada 15 60 

Large White Flint 15 60 

Bluut's Prolific, Field, (New) 20 75 

Cress. per oz. per lb. 

Curled or Pepper Grass $0 10 $1 00 

Broadleaved 20 3 00 

Cucumber. 

Improved Early White Spine 15 1 25 

Early Frame. 15 1 25 

Long Green Turkey 20 2 00 

Early Cluster 15 1 50 

Gherkin or Barr, (for pickling) 25 4 00 

Eg^g-plant. 

Large Purple or New Orleans Market 75 8 00 

Endive. 

Green Curled 20 2 50 

Extra Fine Curled 20 2 50 

Broadleaved or Escarolle 2 2 50 

Kolil Kabi. 

Early White Vienna 25 4 00 

Leek. 

Large London Flag 25 4 00 

Large Carentan - 30 4 00 

Lettuce. 

Early Cabbage, or White Butter 25 3 00 

Improved Royal Cabbage .. 25 4 00 

Brown Dutch 30 4 00 

Drumhead Cabbage Lettuce 25 3 00 

White Paris Coss.. 30 3 00 

Large Curled India 30 4 00 

Perpignau 30 4 00 

Improved Large Passion 30 4 00 

Melon, Musk or Canteloupe. 

Netted Nutmeg 15 1 50 

Netted Citron 15 1 50 

Pine Apple 15 150 

Early White Japan 15 150 



For the Southern States. 



89 



Melon, Musk — Continued. per oz. 

Persi.'in or Cassaba 15 

New Orleans Market '-iO 

Melon, Water. 

Mountain Sweet .. 10 

Mountain Sprout 10 

Impreved Gipsey ': 15 

Ice Cream, (White Seeded) 15 

Orange 20 

Kattle Snake 15 

Mustard. 

White or Yellow Seeded 10 

Largeleaved 10 

Nastiu'tiuiai. 

Tall 25 

Dwarf 30 

Okra. 

Tall Growing 10 

Dwarf 10 

Onion. 

Yellow Dutch or Strassburg , 25 

Large Red Wetb ersfield 25 

White or Silver Skin 25 

Creole. Sold out 

Italian Onions. 

New Queen 35 

Giant Rocca 30 

Siiallots. 
Parsley. 

Plain Leaved 10 

Double Curled 10 

Improved Garnishing „.„ 15 

Parsnij). 

Hollow Crown or Sugar 10 

Peas. per quart. 

Extra Early |0 30 

Tom Thumb 30 

Early Washington 20 

Laxton's Alpha 40 

Bishop's Dwarf Long P >d 30 

Champion of England 30 

McLean's Advancer 30 

McLean's Little Gem 40 

Laxton's Prolific Long Pod 40 

Eugenie 30 

D warf Blue Imperial 30 

Eoyal Dwarf Marrow 25 

Black-Eyed Marrowfat 15 

Large While Marrowfat 20 

Dwarf Sugar. . . r.^ 50 

Tall Sugar 50 

Field or Cow Peas ,. '.-.Market price. 

Pepper. per oz. 

Bell or Bull Nose , $0 40 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous 50 

Long Red Cayenne 40 

Red Cherry.. 40 

6 



per lb 

1 50 

2 00 



1 00 
125 

150 

1 50 

2 00 
150 



40 

100 



3 00 

4 00 



51 00 

1 00 



4 00 
4 00 
4 00 



5 00 

4 00 



100 
125 
150 



120 



per gal 

$100 
1 00 

75 

120 
150 
120 
1 20 
125 
150 
1 20 

1 00 
80 
60 
80 

2 00 
2 00 



per ft 

$4 00 

5 00 
4 00 

4 00 



90 



Richard Frotsolier^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Potatoes, 

Early Rose ^ Prices vary accord- 

Breese's Peerless I ing to market. 

Rnssets , i 

Extra Early Vermont = . f Qaotations will be 



1 

I 
J tion. 



Beauty of Hebron 

Potatoes, STveet. 

Yam ? Prices vary arcording to market, Qaota- 

Shaiighaior California Yam s tions will be given on application. 

Pumpkin. per quart. per gal 

Kentucky Field $0 25 

per ozu 

Large Cheese $0 10 

Cashaw Crook-Neck 10 

Radisli. 

Early Long Scarlet 10 

Early Scarlet Turnip 10 

Yellow Summer Turnip 10 

Early Scarlet Olive Shaped 10 

White Summer Turnip 15 

Scarlet Half Long French 10 

Black Spanish (Winter) 15 

Chinese Eose (Winter) - 15 

Roquette 20 

Salsify (American) 20 

Spiuach. 

Extra Large Leaved Savoy 10 

Broadleaved Flanders 10 

Squash. 

Early Bush or Patty Pan „.. 15 

Long Green or Summer Crook -Neck li 

London Vegetable Marrow . . 25 

The Hubbard 15 

Boston Marrow 15 

Tomato, 

Extra Early Dwarf Red.. 
Earlv Larse Smooth Red. 



50 

20 

Fejee Island 30> 

Tilden 30 

Trophy (selected) 50 

Large Yellow 30 

Acme (new) 40 



Turnip. 

Early Red or Purple Top (strap leaved). 
Early White Flat Dutch (strap-leaved). 

Large White Globe 

White Spring , 

Yellow Aberdeen 

Golden Ball , 

Purple Top Ruta Baga , 



10 

10 

..... 10 

10 

10 

15 

10 

Improved Ruta Baga 15 

Sweet and Medicinal Herbs. 

Anise 

Balm 

Basil 

Bene 

Borage 



SI 00 


erlb 


$0 75 


100 


80 


100 


100 


100 


120 


100 


120 


150 



3 00 
3 00 

60 
50 



1 00 

1 50 

2 00 
125 
150 

6 00 

a 00 

4 00 
4 00 
6 00 
4 00 
500 

60 
60 
60 
60 
75 
75 
60 
75 

per package 

lOc 

10 

10 

10 

10 



For the Southern States. 



91 



Sweet and Medicinal Herbs — Ooutinued. per imckage 

Caraway 10 

Dill 10 

Fennel 10 

Lavender 10 

Majorain 10 

Pot Mariojold 10 

Rosemary ' - 10 

Rue 10 

Sage 10 

Summer Savory 10 

Thyme 10 

Wormwood 10 

Grass and Field Seeds. 

Red Cl< >ver 

White Dutch Clover , 

Alsike Clover, i § 

Alfalfa or French Lucerne i 3 

Kentucky Blue Grass I ^ J 

Rescue Grass . f o '^ 

Hungarian Grass [ '^ &. 

. German Millet ' ^ ^ 

Rye ? ^ o 

Barley ( '^ g 

Red or Rust Proof Oats I ^ § 

Sorghum V ^ '-^ 

Broom Corn 1 -g 

Buckwheat , I ^ 

Johusou Grass / '^ 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass 

Prices of larger quantities of seed will be given on applica- 
tion. Peas and Beaus very low if ordered by the bushel. 



The following letter on "Alfalfa" or ''Lucerne," has been written 
by E. M. Hudson, Esq., a gentleman who is a close observer, and 
has given the subject a great deal of attention, it will be found 
very instructive. 

Villa Friedheim, 
Mobile County J Ala.y September 7 th, 1878. 
Mr. E. Frotscher, l^ew Orleans, La. 

Dear Sir : — Your letter of the 3rd inst. has just reached me, and 
I cheerfully comi)ly with your request to give you the results of my 
experiments with Lucerne or Alfalfa^ and my opinion of it as a 
forage-plant for the South. 

I preface my statement with the observation that my experi- 
ments have been conducted on a naturally poor, piney-woods soil 
(which would be classed as a sandy soil), varying in depth from 
six inches to one foot. But I have a good red clay sub-soil, which 
enables the soil to retain the fertilizers applied to it, thus 
rendering it susceptible of permanent enriching. 

Three years since, when my attention was first directed to Al- 
falfa, I sought the advice of the Editor of the Journal of Progress, 
Professor Stelle, who informed me that, after attempting for seve- 
years to cultivate it, he had desisted. He stated that the plant, 



92 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

at Citrouelle, iu this country, died out every summer, not being- 
able to withstand the hot suns of our climate. Discouraged, but 
not dismayed, I determined to test the matter on a small scale at 
first. Having procured some seed in March, 1876, 1 ])laijted them 
on a border in my garden, and gave neith.-r manure nor work that 
season. The early summer here that year was very dry • there 
was no rain w^hatever from the first ot' June to the 23d of July • 
and from the 2d of August to the 15th of November not a drop of 
rain fell on my place. Yet during all this time, my Alfalfa re- 
mained fresh, bloomed, and was cut two or three times. On the 
1st of November I dug some of it to examine the habit of root- 
growth; and to my astonishment I found it necessary to go 22 
inches blow the surface to reach anything like the end of the top 
roots. At once it was apparent that the plant was, by its very 
habit of growth, adapted to hot and dry climates. It is indeed a 
'' child of the sun." 

Encouraged by this experiment, in which I purposely refrained 
from giving the Alfalfa any care beyond cutting it occasionally, 
last year, I proceeded on a larger scale, planting both spring and 
fall, as I have done again this year to ascertain the best season 
for putting in the seed. My experience teaches that there is no 
preference to be given to spring sowings over those of autumn, 
provided only, there be enough moisture in the soil to make the 
seed germinate, which they do more quickly and more surely than 
the best turnips. Two winters have proved to me that the Alfalfa 
remains green throughout the winter in this latitude, 25 miles 
North of Mobile, and at an altitude of 400 feet above tide-water. 
Therefore I should prefer fall-sowings, which will give the first 
cutting from the 1st of March to the 1st of April following. This 
season my first cutting was made on the 1st of April ; and I have 
cut it since regularly every four or six weeks, according to the 
weather, to cure for hay. Meanwhile a portion has been cut 
almost daily for feeding green, or soiling. Used in the latter way 
{for under no circumstances must it ever be pastured), I am able to 
give my stock fresh, green, food, fully four weeks before the na- 
tive wild grasses commence to put out. I deem it best to cut the 
day before, what is led green, in order to let it become thoroughly 
wilted before using. After a large number of experiments with 
horses, mules, cattle and swine, I can aver that in no instance, 
from March to November, have I found a case when any of these 
animals would not give the preference to Alfalfa over every kind 
of grass (also soiled) known in this region. And, w^hile Alfalfa 
makes a sweet and nutritious hay eagerly eaten by all kinds of 
stock, it is as a forage plant for soding, which is available for at 
least nine months in the year, that I esteem it so highly. The hay 
is easily cured, if that which is cut in the forenoon is thrown into 
small cocks at noon, then spread out after the dew is oft next 
morning, sunned for au hour, and at once hauled into the barn. 
By this method the leaves do not fall ofi", which is sure to be the 
case, if the Alfalfa is exposed to a day or two of hot sunshine. 

It has been my habit to precede the Alfalfa with a clean crop 
— usually Rutabagas, after which I sow clay peas, to be turned 



For the Southern States. 



93 



in about the la^t of July. About the middle of Septetnber or la- 
ter I have the land plowed, the turn-plow being followed by a 
deei3 sub-soil plow or scooter. After this the land is fertilized and 
harrowed until it is thoroughly pulverized and all lumps broken 
up. The fertilizers employed by me are 500 lbs. liae bone dust 
(phosphate of lime) and 1000 lbs. cotton-seed hull ashes per acre. 
These ashes are very r eh in potash and phosphates, containing 
nearly 45 per cent of the phosphate of lime — the two articles best 
adapted to the wants of this plant. I sow all my Alfalfa with the 
Matthew's Seed Drill, in rows lO inches apart. Broad-cast would 
be preferable, if the land was perfectly free from grass and 
weeds ; but, as it takes several years of clean culture to put the 
laud in this condition, sowing in drills is practically the best, ^o 
seed sower known to me can be compared with the Matthew's 
Seed Drill. Its work is evenly and regularly done^ and with a 
rapidity that is astonishing; for it opens the drill to any desired 
depth, drops the seed, covers and rolls them, and marks the line 
for the next drill at one operation. It is simple and durable in its 
structure, and is the greatest labor-saving machine of its kind 
ever devised for hand-work. 

When my Alfalfa is about three inches high, I work it with the 
Matthew's Hand Cultivator. First, the front tooth of the culti- 
vator is taken out, by which means the row is straddled and all 
the grass cut out close to the plant; then, the front tooth being 
replaced, the cultivator is passed between the rows, completely 
cleaning the middles of all foul growth. As often as required to 
keep down grass, until the Alfiilfa is large enough to cut^ the 
Matthew's Hand Cultivator is passed between the rows. 

Alfalfa requires three years to reach perfection, but even the 
first year the yield is larger than most forage plants, and after 
the second it is enormous. The laud must, however, be made 
Wc/i at first; a top-dressing every three years is all that will 
thereafter be required. The seed must be very lightly covered, 
and should be rolled, or brushed in, if not sowed with a Mat- 
thew's Seed Sower. 

Whenever the plant is in bloom it must be cut; for, if the seed 
be left to mature, the stems become hard and woody. Also, 
whenever it turns yellow, no matter at what ag<>, it most be cut 
or mowed ; for the yellow color shows the presence of some dis- 
ease, or the work of some small insect, both of which seem to be 
remedied by moving promptly. My experience leads me to the 
conclusion that fully five tons of cured hay per acre may be 
counted on if proper attention be given to deep plowing, subsoil- 
ing, fertilizing and cleanliness of the soil. These things are in- 
dispensable, and without them no one need attempt to cultivate 
Alfalfa. 

In conclusion, I will remark that I have tried the Lucerne seed 
imported by you from France, side by side with the Alfalfa seed 
sent me by Trumbull & Co., of San Francisco, and I can not see 
the slightest difference in appearance, character, quantity or qual- 
ity of yield, or hardiness. They are identical ; both have ger- 
minated equally well, that is to say, perfectly. 



94 Richard Frotsclier''s Almanac and Garden Manual 

lu closing, I can not do better than refer you to the little trea- 
tise of Mr. O. W. Howard, entitled: '^ ^Manual of the Cultiva- 
tion of the Grasses and Forage Plants at the South." Mr. How- 
ard, among the very first to cultivate Lucerne in the South, gives 
it the preference over all other forage plants whatever. My ex- 
perience confirms all that Mr. Howard claims for it. Oertaiuiy, 
a plant that lasts a generation is worthy of the bestowal of some 
time, patience and money to realize what a treasure they can se- 
cure for themselves. I confidently believe that in ten years from 
this date the Alfalfa will be generally cultivated throughout the 
entire South. 

I am, respectfully yours, 

E. M. HUDSON. 

Counsellor at Laic, 
20 Carondelet Street, 

• New Orleans. 



STRAWBERRY GROWING IN THE GULF 
STATES, 

WITH A DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES SUITED TO THE SOIL 
AND CLIMATE, AND BEST METHODS OF GROWING 
AND PROPAGATING THE SAME. 



By S. M. Wiggins, Secretary Fruit Growers^ Association. 



In an article written for a former issue of Frotschers Almanac 
and Catalogue, we endeavored to give brief and practical direc- 
tions as to the bpst methods of growing this delicious fruit. 

We have had no cause to change our views since that time 
regarding the methods ot culture, with this exception, to impress 
upon our readers the necessity of practising economy in time, 
cultivation, the application of fertilizers, and more approved 
methods of handling and marketing the fruit. A great change 
has taken place within the past two years ; formerly our growers 
were restricted almost entirely to the New Orleans market, then 
a very poor one and easily overstocked. Now our Louisiana, 
Mississippi and Alabama growers may with safety transport 
their fruit, thanks to refrigerator cars, the cheapening of rates, 
and quicker transportation to Memphis, Cairo, St. Louis, Chica- 
go, Louisville, Cincinnati, and a score of smaller towns and villa- 
ges, where a ready sale can be had, not only for the quantity now 
grown, but ten times the amount. 

Still, we have much to learn, and it will be my endeavor to 
show how to succeed in making the business both lucrative and 
pleasant. This may be best obtained by a system of 

CO - OPERATION. 
Small fruit and vegetable growers should, if possible, live in 



For the jSouthern States, 



95 



communities — tracts of land should be selected which are capable 
of proper subdivision. On these tracts, divided into fields, pas- 
ture and woodlands, situated not over two and a half miles from 
a village or station, the grower of small fruits should make his 
home. In such a location he will have the advantage, first, of 
suitable labor to assist him in his work, next, he can control re- 
frigerator cars and other improved means of transportation, be- 
sides save money on car load rates, the purchase of crates and 
baskets, and in addition to all this, he will be freed from the 
isolation of rural life. A community of this kind will support 
not only churches and schools for his children, but the Grange 
and Horticultural Clubs, where views may be interchanged, and 
all have opportunities of learning better methods of work, with 
the additional advantages of social intercourse, therefore we 
would advise horticulturists by all means to choose a home in a 
fruit-growing community, even if he has to pay double or even 
treble price for his land. 

TIME FOR PREPARATION. 

In the lower part of the Gulf States where the ground is never 
frozen sufficiently to retard work, and where snow and ice are 
almost unknown, the work of preparing the land is always in 
order. 

But the real work commences in our climate at any time, from 
April to June, and the earlier the better. The land should be 
cleansed and fertilized, all noxious weeds and grasses should be 
destroyed. 

We have a great deal of land in all portions of the State, and 
especially in our alluvium overrun, with weeds and grass, which 
should be got rid of as soon as possible ; in addition, there are very 
few localities which will not be benefitted by fertilizers, to apply 
these practically and economically must be our aim. The very 
best mode of preparing the soil will be to sow a crop of peas for 
the purpose, which shade the land and enrich it by affording a 
most valuable green crop, to plow or spade under during the latter 
part of August or September, this will leave the ground in fine 
condition for setting out the plants, which should be done as ear- 
ly as possible. Much, however, depends upon the fall rains, un- 
less the planter is provided with proper facilities for irrigation. 

OTHER FERTILIZERS. 



Of course, the cow pea is by no means the only fertilizer 
which may be used. Leaf mold from the woods, barn yard ma- 
nure, superphosphate, well rotted cotton seed or cotton seed meal, 
bone meal, land plaster, poultry guano and unleached ashes are 
all excellent, the main point will be to apply it abundantly and at 
the right time, for the strawberry is a gross feeder, remembering 
always to give preference to home-made fertilizers, which in nine- 
ty-nine cases in a hundred are better than commercial manures, 
which cost in the aggregate a large sum, which may otherwise be 
kept at home. 



96 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



PEEPAEING THE LAND. 

All low flat lauds should be well ditched, although the 
strawberry loves moisture, it is easily drowned out. In choosing 
a location on higher lands, it should be as near level as possible, 
consistent with thorough drainage. We can conceive of no better 
situation for a strawberry farm than the rich hammocks bordering 
the water courses of our pine woods parishes, and especially on new 
freshly cleaned lands. In situations of that sort, fruit may be 
grown of a size and sweetness that would astonish the residents 
ol our alluvial parishes, besides the soil, if well cultivated, does 
not suffer so much from the effects of a drouth, and the plants are 
longer lived. 

PLOWING AND SPADING. 

In small gardens, where it is impossible to use a plow, or where 
a small bed will suffice for the wants of a family, the spade may 
be used with good effect. In field culture, however, the turn 
plow and subsoiler will do equally as good work. The plant 
loves a deep and rich soil, and the use of the subsoil plow will do 
much towards mitigatiug the effects of a prolonged drouth. The 
fertilizing material must be kept near the surface, or not buried 
over three or four inches beneath. After the ground is well pre- 
pared, a Thomas smoothing, or a rotary harrow, should be used 
to thoroughly pulverise the soil. 

SETTING OUT THE YOUNG PLANTS. 

The plants should be set out as soon as possible after they are 
received from the nursery. Our experience has taught us that 
more plants are lost annually by keeping them in boxes or tied 
in bundles, thus causing the crown to decay, than by planting 
immediately on arrival, regardless of the weather. When one 
has plants of his own, they should be dug from day to day as 
wanted. 

When all is in readiness. Lines should be stretched, and the 
rows made as long as possible, to save labor in cultivation. The 
roots should be trimmed, and the plants dropped one foot apart 
in the rows, always keeping on the same side. This may be done 
by children j careful persons should follow as soon as possible, 
opening the soil with a stout paddle or steel hand-plauter, press- 
ing the earth firmly about the plant, always taking care to spread 
the roots and keep the crown entirely above the surface. More 
plants are lost yearly from too deep planting than from all other 
causes combined. 

In our Southern climate the strawberry will (unless the season 
is extraordinarily cold) grow all winter and produce a fair crop 
of fruit the following spring; hence we will appreciate the neces- 
w«ity of keeping the ground clean and free from winter weeds by 
the use of the hoe and cultivator. Care should also be taken to 
cultivate lightly and avoid disturbing the roots. 

MULCHING, 

During the winter the materials for mulching must be gathered 



For the Southern States. 



97 



and distributed in long piles through the middles where it will 
be handy when needed. We do not approve of placing tlie ma- 
terial around the plants uutil wanted, as it shades the ground, 
prevents the formation of roots and development of the fruit buds 
and foliage. In fact, it needs all the sunshine possible. When 
the berries aie about half grown, then the work of mulching must 
be done, if you wish clean and marketable fruit. In our pine 
lands, nothing is better than pine straw, but grass, broom sedge, 
forest leaves, or branches of evergreen will answer ; the fruit and 
foliage must be lifted carefully and the material placed under- 
neath. The good effects will be seen by an abundance of clean, 
mei'chantable fruit, and th« increased price obtained when offered 
for sale. Washing the fruit is very objectionable ; it is a lazy 
makeshift, spoils the liavor, ruins the berry and is a device prac- 
ticed only by the shiftless growers in the vicinity of market to 
avoid work. 

PICKING AND MARKETING. 

The careful planter will see before the time of picking comes 
that he is provided with an ample supply of crates and boxes -, 
a shed or piece of canvas for shelter, and a low table made 
of plank for packing; also, a number of checks or cards, with 
numbers printed thereon — the latter to be punched out as each 
box of fruit is delivered to the superintendent or packer. When 
all is ready, each picker should be provided with a tray or box, with 
handles, to contain, say, ten boxes of fruit, Success with straw- 
berries depends much on the character of the man who raises 
them. If he gains a reputation for honesty, carefulness and fair 
dealing he will have to adopt the following rules : Pick nothing 
but sound, well ripened and perfect fruit. Give good measure, 
and llave the boxes well filled. Pack tightly in the crates, and 
conve.y carefully to the shipping point. Select an honest, cap- 
able merchant to dispose of the fruit, pay him a fair commission 
for so doing, and your fruit will always -ind a ready sale at full 
market prices. 

THE PROFITS OF STRAWBERRY GROWING. 

Of course the profits will depend much upon the seasons, We 
have never known a complete failure of the strawberry crop in 
the Gulf States. But we think we are not far out of the way 
when we give the average net proceeds of an acre of land prop- 
erly cultivated in strawberries at one hundred dollars. 



VARIETIES, 

There are two hundred approved kinds, more or less; 
nearly all have their champions. But all practical fruit- 
growers have about come to the conclusion that if all were de- 
stroyed, except the old-fashioned Wilson's Albany, no one would 
be the loser. We do not concur in so sweeping a verdict on all 
new kinds, but for Louisiana a person will not go far out of the 
way if he adopt the Wilson until he is satisfied that he has some- 
thing better. 



98 Richard Froisclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 

LongicortWs Prolific. — It seems like goiog back a h^ilf a ceutury 
to recommend the Longwortb, but we consider it among the 
most valuable as a profitable kind for market, hardy, prolific, 
but not first class for eating — too sour. It succeeds well in the 
vicinity of Xew Orleans. 

Imperial. — TTere we called on to decide upon the best berry for 
the table and especially valuable as a family fruit, we would 
choose this variety above all. It is too soft for market, however, 
unless it can be carried by hand ; not very prolific, unless cultur- 
ed ill stools :' stands our climate well and runs tremendously. A 
friend obtained over three hundred plants from two the first sea- 
son 5 needs high cultivation and a rich soil. 

Charles Downing. — Has many friends, and deservedly so. Plant 
hardy in Louisiana, lives well through our trying summer, produces 
a very large fine-flavored berry, on foot stalks well off the 
ground^ fruit most too soft for long transit. It has one serious 
fault, viz.: a disposition to decay on the vines during a spell of 
wet weather. 

Captain Jacl' — Plant hardy and vigorous, but it does not pos- 
sess enough good qualities to entitle it to precedence over any 
above mentioned. 

Mary Stuart. — A pistillate variety originating in Louisiana? 
must be planted near some staminate plant to produce fruit. 
Berry excellent quality and flaror in a dry season ; plant hardy, 
prolific and healthy, like all fine flavored kinds, too soft for a 
distant market. 

Crescent Seedling— Vi^e CRnuot recommend the Crescent, also a 
pistillate variety, unless one desires to grow a large quantity of 
very poor fruit. We have rejected it after two seasons' trial. 

Fresident Lincoln. — When it is desired to produce monstrous 
specimens of ill-shaped fruit for exhibition, this kind will find 
friends, especially among amateurs. Plant tolerbly hardy, and 
moderately productive ; needs rich soil and high culture. 

Sharpless. — An excellent large-sized berry moderately healthy, 
X)roductive and of good quality. We understand that it succeeds 
well with good culture on bur high hammocks. We will accord 
the Sharpless a further trial. 

Cuniherland Triumpli. — A large fine solid berry of regular shape 
and good quality. The foliage of the plant is abundant, conse- 
quently stands the heat of our summers well, fruit large, conical, 
scarlet in color and very prolific. 

Continental. — Plant hardy and healthy, but a shy bearer with 
us; we consider it worthless for southern culture. 

Jucunda. — With us worthless. 

Boyden^s Ko 30 — An excellent fruit of fine quality, but owing to 
leaf flight, we have abandoned it. 

Miner's Great Frolilic. — This variety, so promising last season, 
has failed us this year. We propose, however, to accord it a 



For the Southern States. 



99 



furthor trial, owing to the healthy gi'owth of the plant, and its 
capal)ility of standing our long dry season. 

The berry is firm, of excellent taste and flavor, of good size and 
color. A verj^ prolific variety. 

Nunan, or Charleston Seedling. — This is the great market berry 
grown so extensively in Greorgia, and S. Carolina for the Northern 
markets. AYe undertand that it is prolific fruit, of good size and 
early; qualities that will recommend it every where. As it succeeds 
finely in the South Atlantic States, it will doubtless answer 
equally as well in Louisiana and Mississippi. 

EndicotVs Seedling. — This is a seedling of Boyden's 30, and very 
similar in appearance, only the berries are larger and foliage 
healthier and more abundant. Quality first rate, though the fruit 
is somewhat tender for a distant market, we would class this 
variety as tirst class for an amateur-gardener, or parties living 
in close proximity to a city. 

NEWER KINDS. 

Bidwell. — A new variety originating in Michigan, where it has 
been grown for a series of years. It has also been tested by many 
prominent horticultui^ists in the North, who write enthusiastically 
in its favor. Perhaps some of these gentlemen have plants to sell 
[Quien sahe). At any rate, we intend investing in a dozen or two 
plants of the Bidwell, plant them in Lousiana soil, and patiently 
abide the result. It is described as first class in size, quality and 
everything else. 

Manchester. 

And now comes the long sought for, found at last Strawberry 
— something to excel the Wilson in health, productiveness, firm- 
ness, size, flavor', beauty, general adaptability to all kinds of 
soils, and every variety of climate. We must have a dozen or 
two plants of this variety, provided our New Jersey friends, 
with whom it originated, will not charge us over one dollar a 
plant. It is said to be a plant with large foliage, immense foot 
stalks holding a large, magnificent fruit well off the ground, 
very firm, of good quality, and immensely prolific, either in poor 
or rich soils. From evidences in its favor we deem it worthy 
of a fair trial. 

Longfellow, 

A fine large, pointed berry, of excellent quality, and worthy 
to be largely disseminated. Succeeds will in Arkansas, Tennes 
see. North Mississippi and Alabama. Like many first class 
fruits, it is too tender for distant markets. 

Warren.) Champion^ Glendale, Garden and Bed JacJcet are 
newer sorts not yet tested in the South, but highly lauded in the 
North and West. Should our readers wish to test these new can- 
didates for public favor some of them will doubtless prove val- 
uable. We would, however, impress upon all concerned, to go 
slow, and not to spend much money on them. A small, experi- 
mental plat of ground, fifty feet square, well exposed to the sun. 



100 Eichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 

and made lick with well rotted compost, or whereon a crop of 
cow peas have been grown and turned Uf-der, would meet all re- 
quirements. Oq a piece of soil prepared in this way, and the 
plants thereon well cultivated and cared for, the true value of a 
new variety could be determined for that particular locality in 
one, or at least two seasons. It is hard for a progressive fruit 
grower to resist a brilliant description of a new kind of fruit, 
which, if it succeeds, wiil make him a fortune; but it is well to 
temper enthuvsiasm with prudence. Small fruit growing has 
made great strides since the time we made our first venture in 
the strawberry patch. When one quart was sold at that time, a 
thousand now find a ready sale. Dr. Hexamer, in liis address 
before the Xew Jersey State Horticultural Society, spoke as fol- 
lows in reference to the t:ukure of the strawberry : 

" Statistics show that the value of strawberries sold annually in 
o«r large cities amounts to many millions of dollars, but the 
priceless value in enjoyment, in good cheer and health to the 
millions who grow and pick and eat their own berries, is incal- 
culable. With the planting of every strawberry bed on a farm 
where there was none before, the coruer stone is laid for a happy 
home, for every plant we entruist to the soil bears in it the germs 
for happiness and health. Would we know where the strawber- 
ries grow, let us drive along the country road to yonder cozy cot- 
tage, where the rosy cheeks and bright eyes, the happy faces and 
cheerful expression of the children playing under the rose-cover- 
ed veranda tell plainer than words can tell that the strawberry 
bed is not far away. 

But progress in strawberry and other fruit culture has accom- 
plished more than invigorated health, increased enjoyment, and 
made home dearer to our children : it has sharpened observation, 
brightened thought and inspired the development and stability 
of the noblest traits of human nature, ^o plainer object-lesson 
was ever taught, no more impressive sermon preached than that 
which nature instilled in every root, in every leaf, in every ex- 
panding bud and every fading fl.ower which must wither that the 
more perfect fruit may spring into life. 

There is a class of people who do not believe in progress, who 
think the world had reached perfection when they were young, 
and that it has moved backward since. But who could, fifty years 
ago, have imagined the wonderful progress of the present day, 
and who can conceive what progressive idejis, progressive minds 
and progressive men will accomplish in another half century? 
We may, at times, go too fast, and make missteps, or we may put 
on too much steam and burst a boiler, but what of that ? What 
does the brave soldier care if he must lose his life that his brothers 
may march to victory '?" 

In concluding this somewhat lengthy article on the Culture of 
Strawberries in the Gulf States, we claim the indulgence of 
friends who know, and we trust appreciate, our enthusiasm in the 
cause of horticulture in all its branches. We believe that for- 
tune and happiness may be tound in its exercise, and that more 
gold will be made in the culture of small fruits in the South than 
in the mines of New Mexico or California. 



For the Southern States. 



101 



FLOWER SEEDS. 



The following list of Flower seeds is not very large, but it 
contains all which is desirable and which will do well in the South- 
ern climate. I import them from one of the most celebrated grow- 
ers in Prussia, and they are of the best quality. There are very 
few or no flower seeds raised in this country, and I^orthern houses, 
which publish large lists and catalogues, get them from just the 
same sources as myself; but they, on an average, sell much higher 
than I do. Some varieties which are biennal in Europe or I^orth, 
flower here the first season; in fact, if they do not, they generally 
do not flower at all, as they usually are destroyed by the contin- 
ued long heat of summer. Some kinds grow quicker here and 
come to greater perfection than in a more Korthern latitude. 

Flower seeds require a little more care in sowing than vege- 
table seeds. The ground should be well pulverized and light en- 
ough not to bake after a rain. Some of the more delicate and 
finer varieties are better sown in boxes or seed pans, where they 
can be better handled and protected from hard rains or cold 
weather; the other kinds do not transplant well and are better 
sown at once where they are to remain, or a few seeds may be 
sown in small pots to facilitate transplanting into the garden with- 
out disturbing the plants, when large enough. Some have very 
fine seeds which the mere pressing of the hand or spade to the 
soil will cover; others may be covered one-fourth of an inch, ac- 
cording to their size. Watering should be done carefully, and if 
not done with the springe, a watering pot where the holes of the 
spout are very fine should be used. 

By setting the plants out, or sowing the seeds in the border, 
consideration should be taken of the height, so that the taller va- 
rieties may be in the middle and the dwarf kinds on the edge of 
the bed. 

The seeds are put up at ten cents a package, one dollar per 
dozen, except a few rare or costly kinds, where the price is noted. 
All Flower seeds in packages are mailed free of postage to the 
purchaser. Where there is more than one color, I generally im- 
port them mixed, as I find that most of my customers do not wish 
to purchase six packages or more of one variety, in order to get 
all the colors. One package of Asters, Zinnia, Phlox, Chinese 
Pink, German Stocks, Petunia, Portulaca and others, will always 
contain an equal mixture of the best colors. 



102 Ricliard Frotsclier''s Almanac and Garden Mayiuai 



Altliea Kosea. Hollyhock. This 
flower has been much improved of late 
.years, and is very easily cultivated. 
Can be sown from October till April. 
Very hardy; from four to six iuches 
high. 

Alyssuiii maritiiiiiini. Sweet 
Alyssum. Very free flowering plants 
about six inches high, with white flow- 
ers: very fragraut. Sow from Octo- 
ber till April. 

Aiitirliinuni niajus. Snapdrag- 
on. Choice mixed. Showy plant of 
various colors. About two feet high. 
Should be sown early, if perfect flow- 
ers are desired. Sow from Otober till 
March. 




Aithea Rosea. 



Aster, Queen Margaret. German Quilled. Perfect double 
quilled flowers, of ail shades, from white to dark purple and crim- 
son. One and a half feet high. 




/c^- 



:^^. 




German Quilled Aster. 



Trufaut's Paeony Flowered Aster. 



Aster, Trufaut^s Paeony Flowered Perfection. Large 
double paeony shaped flowers, of fine mixed colors; one of the 
best varieties. Two feet high ; sow from December till March. 
Asters should be sown in a box or in pots and kept in a green- 
house, or near a window ; when large enough transplant into the 
border. Take a shovel of compost and mix with the ground be- 
fore planting. Put three to four plants together and they will 
show better. They can be cultivated in pots. 



For the Southern States. 



103 



iTTi fr: 





Adonis autnmnalis. Amaranthus caudatus. 

Adonis autiiiiinalis. Flos Adonis or 
Pheasant's Eye. Showy crimson flower, 
of lon^ duration. Sow from November 
till April. One foot hig'h. 

Ainaraiitlius caudatus. Love Lies 
Bleeding. Long red racemens with blood 
red flowers. Very graceful; three feet 
high, 

Amaranthus tricolor. Three col- 
ored Amaranth. Very showy; cultivated 
on account of its leaves, which are green, 
yellow and red. Two to three feet high. 

Amaranthus bicolor, Tvto colored 
Amaranth. Crimson and green variega- 
ted foliage; good for edging. Two teet 
high. 

Amaranthus atropurpureus. Crimson Amaranth. Long 
drooping spikes of purple flowers. Four feet high. 




Amaranthus Tricolor. 





Amaranthus Salicifolius. Fountain Plant- 



Double Daisy. 



104 



Ricliard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Aiiiaranthiis Salicifoliiis. Fountain Plant, Eich col- 
ored foliage, ver3^ graceful. Five to six feet high. Sow from 
February till June. 



1 I 



^ 











.Aquilegia or Colambine. 



Balsamina Camelia Flowered. 



Aquilegla, Columbine. A showy and beautiful flower of 
different colors 5 two feet high. Sow from October till March. 
Should be sown early if flowers are wished ; if sown late will not 
bloom till next season. 

Balsaiiiina liortensis. Lady Slipper. A well known 

flower of easy culture. Requires good ground to produce double 
flowers. 

Balsamina. Camelia flowered. Yery double and beauti- 
ful colors. 

Balsaniiiia camelia flora alba. Pure white flowers, 
used for bouquets; about two feet high. Sow from February till 
August. 

Bellis Perennis. Daisy. Finest double mixed variety ; 
four inches high. From October till Januarr 



For the Southern States. 



105 





Cacaiia cocciuea. 



Celocia cristata. 



Cacalia cocciuea. Scarlet Tassel Flower. A profuse flow- 
ering plaat, with t^ssal-shaped flowers in clusters; oue and a half 
feet. Sow from Februiry till May, 

Calendula officinalis. Pot Marigold. A plant which, 
properly speakiug, belongs to the aromatic herbs, but sometimes 
cultivated for the flowers, which vary in different shades of yel- 
low; one and a half feet. From January till April. 

Celocia cristata. Dwarf Gock's-comb. Well known class 
of flowers which are very ornamental, producing large heads of 
crimson and yellow flowers ; one to two feet high. Sow from 
February till August. 




Cherianthus Cheri. 

i 'Cherianthus Clieri. Wall Flower. This flower is high- 
ly esteemed in fioine parts of Europe, but does not grow very per- 
fectly here, and scddom produces the large spikes of double flow- 
ers which are very fragrant. Two ieet high. November till 
March. 7 



106 



Richard Frotseher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



Campamila speculum. Bell-Flower, or Venus' looking- 
glass. Fiee floweriug plants of different colors, from white to 
dark bluej One foot high. Sow from December till March. 





Centaurea cyanus. Centaurea auavolens. 

Ceiitaurea cyanus. Bottle Pink. A hardy annual of easy 
culture, of various colors ; two feet high. 

Centaurea suavolens. Yellow, Sweet Sultan. December 
to April. 

Cineraria hybrida. A beautiful green-house plant. Seed 
should be sown in October or November, and they will Hower in 
spring. Per package 25 cents. 

Diantiius Barbatus. Sweet William. A well known 
plant which has been much improved of late years. Their beau< 
tiful colors make them very showy. Should be sown early, other- 
wise they will not flower the first spring; one and a half feet high. 
October till April. 





Dianthus barbatus- Dianthus chinensis double. 

Diantiius Chinensis. Chinese Pink. A beautiful class 
of annuals of various colors, which flower very profusely in early 
spring and summer; one foot high. From October till April. 

Dianthus Heddewig-g^ii. Japan Pink. This is the most 
showy of any of the annual pinks. The flowers are very large 



For the Southern States. 



107 



and of brilliant colors; one foot high. Sovr 
from October till April. 

Dianthus plumaris. Border Pink. A 
fragrant pink used for edging. The flowers 
are tinged, generally pink or white with a 
dark eye. Does not flower the first yearj 
two feet high. Sow from January till April. 

Diantlius caryophyllus. Carnation 
Pink. This is a v^ell known and highly es- 
teemed class of flowers. They are double, 
of different colors, and very fragrant ; can 
be sown either in fall or spring ; should be 
shaded during midsummer and protected 
from hard rains; three to four feet high. 
November till April. 




Dianthus caryophyllus. 





Diantlius Picotee. Early Dwarf Double Carnation Pink. 

Diantlius Picotee. Finest hybrids. Stage flowers saved 
from a collection of over 500 named varieties; per package 50c. 

Dianthus piiinila. Early dwarf flowering Carnation Pink. 
If sown early this variety will flower the first season. They are 
quite dwarfish and flower very profusely. November till April. 

Delpiiiniujn Imperial, fl. pi. Imperial flowering Lark- 
spur. Very handsome variety of symmetrical form. Mixed col- 
ors ; bright red, dark blue and red striped ; IJ feet high. 

DelpMniiim ajacis. Rocket 
Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very showy, 'c/^ 
two and a half feet. ,^.(^,^ 

Delpliiniuin Chinensis.— ' >^ 
Dwarf China Larkspur. Mixed col- <'V 

ors; very pretty ; one foot high. No- 
vember till April. 

Note — None of the above three 
varieties transplant well, and are bet- 
ter sown at once where they are in- 
tended to remain. 

Dahlia. Large Flowering Dah '^^\ ^ - 
lia. Seed sown in the spring will 
flower by June. Very pretty colors 
are obtained from seed ; the semi-dou- 
ble or single ones can be pulled up as 




^\ 




Delphinium Chinensis. 



108 



Eichard Frotsclier''s Almanac and Garden Manual 



they bloom j but those seeds which are saved from fine double va- 
rieties will produce a good per centage of double flowers. Febru- 
ary tiU June. 

Esclisclioltzia Califomica. California Poppy. A very 

free floweriug plant, good for masses. ^^..^^ .^^,. , 

Does not transplant well. One foot *^ " "' '"''" ' 

high. December till April. 




^.^A^'^^^^ 



•*?-^"r 







^~" - '— ur ^ 

Gaillardia bicolor. Purple Globe Amaranth. 

G-aillarclia bicolor. Two colored Gaillardia. Yery showy 
plants, which continue to flower for a long time. Flowers red, 
bordered with orange yellow. One and a half feet high. Januarr 

till April. ^ ^^ ~j^ ^ .-^ 



m^ 

m 



€ 



^30^ 






^\^ 



m 









J • 



Geraninm Zonale. 



For the Southern States, 



109 



Gillia. Mixed Gillia. Dwarf plants, which flower freely of 
various colors. One foot. December till April. 

Gomphrena alba and purpurea. White and Crimson 
Batchelor Button or Globe Amaranth. Well known variety of 
flowers; very early and free flowering; continue to flower for a 
long time. Two feet high. From February till August. 

Geranium Zonale. Zonale Geranium. Seed saved from 
large flowering varieties of different colors; should be sown in 
seed pans, and when large enough transplanted Into pots, where 
they can be left, or transplanted in spring into the open ground. 




Geranium pelargonium. 

Geranium pelarg-onium. Large flowering Pelargonium. 
Spotted varieties, 25 cents per package. 

Geranium oderatissima. Apple-scented Geranium. 
Cultivated on account of its fragrant leaves; 25 cents per pack- 
age. Both of these kinds are pot plants, and require shade during 
hot weather. Should be sown duiing fall and winter. 

Gypsophila paniculata. Gypsophila. A graceful plant 
with white flowers, which can be used for bouquets. One foot 
high; from December to April. 



110 



EicJiard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Heliotropiuin. Mixed Tarie- 
ties with dark and light shaded flow- 
ers. A well known plant, esteemed 
for the fragrance of its flowers which 
are produced during the whole sum- 
mer in great profusion. This plant 
is generally propagated by cuttings, 
but can also be raised from seed. 
Should be sown in a hot-bed if sown 
early. 

Helichrysuin inonstrosum 
album. White Everlasting Flow- 
er. Very showy double flowers. One 
and a haf feet high. 
Heiiotropium. Heliclirysuiii moiistrosuin 

rubrum. Eed Everlasting Flower. Very ornamental. One 
and a half feet high. December till April. Does not transplant 

Heliantlms 11. pi. Double Flowering Sunflower. A well 
known plant, with showy yellow flowers. The double is often 
cultivated in the flower garden. The single varieties are culti- 
vated mostly for the seed. They are said to be antimalarious. 
Four feet high. February till May. 

Iberis aiiiara. White candytuft. A well known plant 
raised a good deal by florists for bouquets. Can be sown at dif- 
ferent times to have a succession of flowers. One foot high. 

Iberis umbelata rosea. Purple candytuft. One foot. 
October till April. 

Liimiii graDdiflorum rubrum. Scarlet Flax. A very 
pretty plant for masses or borders, with bright scarlet flowers, 
dark 'in the centre. One foot. January till April. 



mM^^ 








Lobelia erinus. 






jrJv^''* ^-*^ I'j -J^"- ">-* \^ 
Mathiola annua. 



Lobelia erinus. Lobelia. A very graceful plant, with 
white and blue flowers, well adapted for hanging baskets or bor- 
der. Half foot. October till March. 



For the Southern States. 



Ill 



liyclinis chalcedonica. Lychnis. 
Nice plants with scarlet, white and rose 
flowers. Two feet. December till April. 
Liipinus. Lupinus. Plants with 
spikes of flowers of various colors. Should 
be sown soon. Does not transplant well. 
Two feet. December till March. 

Mat hi Ola annua. Ten Weeks 
Stocks. This is one of the finest annuals 
in cultivation. Large flowers of all col- 
ors, from white to dark blue or crimson. 
Should be sown in pots or pans, and 
when large enough transplanted into rich 
soil. One and a quarter feet. October 
till March. 

Lychnis chalcedonica. Meseinbryantliemuni crystalli- 
num. Ice plant. Neat plant with icy looking foliage. It is of 
spreading habit. Good for baskets or beds. One foot. Febru- 
ary till April. 

m Mimuliis tig'riniis. Monkey flower. Showy flowers of 
yellow and brown. Should be sown in a shady place. Does not 
transplant well. Half foot, December till March. 






^^ 




Ice Plant. 



Double Matricaria. 



Matricaria capensis. Double Matricaria. White double 
flowers, resembling the Daisy, but smaller, are fine for bouqaets; 
blooms very nearly the whole summer. Two feet. December till 
March. 

Mimosa pudica. Sensitive Plant. A curious and inter- 
esting plant which folds up its leaves when touched. One foot. 
February till June. 

Mirabilis jalai^a. Marvel of Peru. A well known plant 
of easy culture; producing flowers of various colors. It forms a 
root which can be preserved from one year to another. February 
till June. Three feet. 

Myosotis palnstris. Forget-me-not. A fine little plant 
with small, blue, starlike flowers. Should have a moist, shady 
situation. Does not succeed so well here as in Europe, of which 
it is a native. Half foot high. December till March. 



112 



Eicliard FrotscJier's Almanac and Garden Manual 





Blue Grove Love. Petnnia Liybri(''a. 

ISTeniopliila Iiisignis. Blue Grove Love. Plants of easy 
culture, very pretty and profuse bloomers. Bright blue, with 
white centre. One foot high. 







Nigella daina^cena 

Neinoi)liila maciilata. 

Large white flowers spotted 
with violet. One foot high. 
December till April. 

Xigella damascena.— 

Love in a Mist. Plants of easy 
culture, with light blue flowers. 
Does not transplant well. One 
foot bigh. December till April. 

Xierenibergia gracilis. 

yierembergia. 2s ice plants 
with delicate foliage, and white 
flowers tiute<l \\\\\^ hi^c One 
foothigb. November till April. 

GEiiotliera Lainarckia- 

ua. Evening Primrose: showy, 
large yellow flowers. Decem- 
ber till A])ril. Two feet high. 




Papaver ramincQlus flowered. 



For the Southern States. 



113 



Papaver Somniferinn. Double flowering Poppy. Of dif- 
ferent colors; very showy. 

Papaver ranunculus flowered. Double fringed flow- 
ers, very showj?. Cannot be transplanted. Two feet bigh. Oc- 
tober till March. 

Petunia hybrida. Petunia. Splendid mixed hybrid va- 
rieties. A very decorative plant of various colors, well known 
to almost every lover of flowers. Plants are of spreading habit, 
about one foot high. January till May. 




Phlox Drummondii grandi flora. 



114 



EicJiard Frotsclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Petunia flora pleno. Large double flowering varieties. 
They are hybridized with the finest strains, and will give from 20 



to 25 per cent, of double flowers. Very handsome : 25 cents per 
package. January till March. 

Phlox Drumiiion- 
dii. Drummond's Phlox. 
One of the best and most 
popular annuals in culti- 
vation. Their various col- 
ors, and length of flower- 
ing with easy culture, 
make them favorites with 
every one. All fine colors 
mixed. One foot high. 
December till April. 

Phlox Druminon- 
dii gTancliflora. This 
is an improvement on the 
above; flowers are larger ___ „ _ 

ent colors. Yery beauti- 
ful. One foot high. De- 
cember till April. 

Portnlaca. A small _ 

plant of great beauty, and ^^^^^' ^"^^ 

of the easiest culture. Does Double Portnlaca. 

best in a well exposed situation, where it has plenty of sun. The 
flowers are of various colors, from white to bright scarlet and 
crimson. The plant is good for edging vases or pots. Or where 
large plants are kept in tubs, the surface can be filled with this 
neat little genus of plants. Half foot high. February till Au- 
gust. 

Portnlaca gTancliflora fl. pi. Double Portulaca. The 
same variety of colors with semi-double and double flowers. Half 
foot high. February till August. ,^15^ 






-V-LiC 



Scabiosa nana. 
Polyanthus. An herbaceous plant of va- 
rious colors, highly esteemed in Europe, Half foot high, 
cember till April. 



Primula veris. 

Prinmla veris. 



De 



For the Southern States. 



115 




Primnla cliiiiensis. Chinese 
Primrose, A green -Iiouse plant, which 
flowers profusely aud continues to 
bloom for a long timej should be sown 
early to insure the plant flowering 
well. Different colors mixed, \mr pack- 
age 25 cents. One and a half feet 
high. October till February. 

Reseda oderata. Sweet Mign- 
onette. A fragrant plant and a favor- 
ite with everybody. One foot high. 

Reseda grandiflora. Similar to 
the above plant and flower, spikes lar- 
ger. Fifteen inches. December till 
April. 

Scabiosa nana. Dwarf Mourn- 
ing Bride. Plants of double flowers of various colors. One foot 
high. December till April. 

Saponaria calabrica. Soapwort. A very free flowering 
annual, of easy culture, resembling somewhat in leaves the Sweet 
William. One and a half feet high. December till April. 

Salvia coccinea splendens. Scarlet Silvia or Eed 
Flowering Sage. A pot or green-house plant, but which can be 
grown as an annual, as it flowers freely from seed the first year. 
Two to three feet high. February till April. 

Silene Arnieria, LobeFs Catchfly. A free blooming 
plant of easy culture j flowers almost anywhere. Eed and white. 
One and a half feet high. 



Reseda oderata. 




Tagetes Erecta. 




Tagetes Patula. 



Tagetes erecta. African or Tall-growing Marigold. Very 
showy annuals for borders, with bright yellow flowers growing 
upright. One and a half feet high. 

Tagetes patula, French or Dwarf Marigold. A very 
compact dwarf growing variety, covered with yellow and brown 
flowers. One and a half feet high. January till April. 

Verbena hybrida. Hybridized Verbena. A well known 
and favorite flower for borders. Their long flowering and great 
diversity of color make them valuable for every garden, however 



116 



Richard Frotscherh Almanac and Garden Manual 



small. All colors mixed; 
one and a half feet high. 
January till April. 

Verbena Striped 
Italian. These are 
beautiful striped kinds 
of all colors with large 
ejes. 

Verbena Niveni, 

White Verbena. Pure 
white Verbena of more 
or less fragrance. One 
and a half feet high. 
January till April. 

Vinea rosea and 
albai Ked and White 
Periwinkle, Plants of 
shining- foliage, with 
white and dark rose col- 
ored flowers, which are 
produced during the 
whole summer and au- 
tumn. Two feet high, 
February till April. 

Viola o d o r a t a . 

Sweet Violet, Well 
known edging plant, 
which generally is pro- 
pagated by dividing the 
plants; but can also be 
raised from seed. Half 
foot high. Sow from 
January till March. 



^^^if5^_ 




Choicest Large English Pansy. 




Hybridized Verbena. 



Striped Italian Verbena. 



For the Southern States. 



117 



Viola tricolor maxima. Large flowering choicest Pansy. 
This is one of tlie finest little plants in cultivation, for pots or the 
open ground. They are of endless colors and markings. When 
planted in the gar<)en, they will show better if planted in masses, 
and a little elevated above the level of the garden. Half foot 
high. October till March. 





Double Zinnia. 



aK^OU^CAa 



Zinnia elegans fl, pi, Double Zinnia. Plants of very 
easy culture, fl.jweriiig very profusely through the whole summer 
and fall; producing double flowers of all colors, almost as large 



as the flower of a dahlia, 
gust, 



Three feet high. February till Au- 



118 



Bichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



CLIMBING PLANTS. 



Beniiicasa cerifera. Wax Gourd. A stroog growing 
vine with long shaped dark crimson fruit, which looks very orna- 
mental. It is used for preserves. 





Balloou Vine. 



ClimbiDor Cobsea. 



Cardiospermum. Balloon Vine. A quick growing climb- 
er, the seeds of w^hich are in a pod shaped like a miniature bal- 
loon, therefore the name. 

Cobsea Scaclens. Climbing Cobaea. Large purple bell 
shaped flowers. Should be sown in a hot-bed, and not kept too 
moist. Place the seed edgewise in the ground. Twenty feet high. 
January till April. 







,1^. 







Morning Glory. 



Mixed Thtinbergia. 



For the Southern States. 



119 




Hyacinth Beau. 



Convolvulus major, MorniDg Glory. Well known vine 
with various handsomely colored flowers of easy culture. Grow 
almost anywhere. Teu feet high. February till July. 

Curcurbita. Ornamental Gourd. Mixed varieties of Or- 
namental Gourds of different shapes and sizes. February till 
May. 

Curcurbita lagrenaria dulcis. Sweet Gourd. A strong 
growing vine of which the young fruits are used like Squash. 
February till April. 

Doliclios Lablab. Hyacinth 
Bean. Free growing plant, with 
purple and white flowers. March till 
April. 

Ipomiiea Quanioclit rosea. 
Red Cypress Vine. Very beautiful, 
delicate foliage, of rapid growth, with 
scarlet flowers, 

Ipomsea Quamoclit alba. 
White Cypress Vine. The same as 
the foregoing kind, except white flow- 
ers. February till August. 

Ipomsea Bona Nox. Large 
Flowering Evening Glory. A vine 
of rapid growth, with beautiful blue 
and white flowers, which open in the 
evening. Twenty feet high. February till June. 

Latliyrus odoratvis. Sweet Peas. Beautiful flowers of 
all colors, very showy. Good for cut flowers. Six feet high. De- 
cember till April. 

Maiu'andia Barclayana. Mixed Maurandia. A slender 
growing vine of rapid growth. Eose, purple and white colors 
mixed. Ten feet high. February till April. 

Mamordica Balsamina, Balsam Apple. A climbing 
plant of very rapid growth, producing Cucumber-like fruits, with 
warts on them. They are believed to contain some medicinal vir- 
tues. They are put in jars with alcohol, and are used as a dress- 
ing for cuts, bruises, etc. 

Luft'a acutang^ula. Dish Rag Vine. A very rapid grow- 
ing vine of the Gourd family. When the fruit is dry, the fibrous 
substance, which covers the seeds, can be used as a rag. Febru- 
ary till April. 

Secliium edule. Vegetable Pear or Mirlitou. A rapid 
growing vine with grape-like leaves, of which the fruit is eaten j 
there are two varieties, white and green. It lias only one seed, 
and the whole fruit has to be planted. 

Tropseolum majus. Nasturtium. Trailin*g plants with 
elegant flowers of different shades, mostly yellow and crimson, 
which are produced in great abundance. Four feet high. Feb- 
ruary till April. 

Tliunber^ia. Mixed Thunbergia. Very ornamental vines, 
with yellow bell shaped flowers, with dark eye. Six feet high. 
February till May. 



120 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



BULBOUS BOOTS. 




Anemones. 



Anemones. Double flower- 
iDg. Planted aud treated the same 
as the Rauunculus. They are of 
great varieties in- color. 

Double Dutch $0 50 per dozen. 
'<' F euch 1 00 f' 

Dahlias. Fine double named 
varieties. Plants so well known 
for their brilliancy, diversity of 
colors aud profuse flowering quali- 
ties, that they require no recom- 
mendation. They can be planted 
from Fel>ruary till May ; they 
thrive best in rich loamy soil. They 
should be th d up to stakes, which 
ought to be driven into the ground 
befure or when [planting them. To 
have them flower late in the st^ason 
they should be planted lare in the 
spring, and the flower buds nipped 
ofl" when they appear; treateci in 
this way, they will produce pt^rfect 
flowers dusing fall. Undivided 
roots $4 00 per dozen. 




v« 




•.ilfelV'C' ^^-'■^^ 



i'K^: 



For the Southern States. 



121 



Gladiolus. Hybrid 
Gladiolus. One of the best 
summer flowering bulbs ; 
they have been greatly im- 
proved of late years, and 
almost every color has been 
produced; is tinged and 
blotched in all shades from 
delicate rose to dark Ver- 
million. When planted at 
intervals during spring, 
tbey will flower at diffen^nt 
times, but those that are 
planted earliest produce 
the finest flowers. The 
roots should be taken up in 
the fall. 

Hybrids mixed, first 
choice, 10c. each ; 75c. per 
dozen. 

Hybiids, white ground, 
1st choice, 10c. each, $L 00 
per dozen. 

Vpry fine named varie- 
ties, 25c. each. 

Gloxinias. These are 
really bulbous green-house 
plants, but they can be cul- 
tivated in i^ots and kept in a 
shady place in the garden, or 
window. They are very beau- 
tiful, color from white to dark 
violet and crimson. The leaves 
are velvety, and on some va- 
riet;es very large. They should 
be planted early in spring ; re- 
quire sandy ground and a good 
deal of moisture during flow- 
ering time. French Hybrids 
strong bulbs, $3 00 per dozen. 

Hyacintlis. (Dutch.) 

Double and single. The Hya- 
cinth is a beautiful flowering 
bulb, well suited for open Gioxiaias. 

ground or pot culture. They should b^. planted from October 
till February. If planted in pots it is wall to keap in a cool, 
rather dark place, till they are well started, when they can be 
placed in the full light and sun. Double and single, 15 cents 




each ; $1 50 per dozen. 

liilium tigriiium. Tiger Lily, A wel 
very showy and of easy culture ; 15 cents each. 

8 



known variety, 



122 Bichard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 



Liliiun tigTiiiiiiii fl, pi. This is a new variety ; it is per- 
fectly double, aud the petals are imbricated almost as regalarlv 
as a camelia flower, ^ovel aud fine, 30 cents each. 




Lilium Tigrinnm ti. pi. 



JAPAN LILIES. 

Liliiuii aiu'atiini. Golden 
Baud Lily. This is a very hand- 
some lily ^ the flowers are large 
aud white, each petal having a 
yellow stripe. It is of easy cul- 
ture. A loamy, dry soil suits 
it best, aud planted one inch 
deep. 

The past season T had occa- 
sion to see several of this noble 
lily in bloom, aud it is really 
tiui^ : half a dozen flowers open- 
ing at the same time, aud they 
measure from six to nine inches 
across : it is very fragrant. I 
expect some flue bulbs, same as 
I had last yaar. imported direct 
from their native country. 

Flowering bulbs 50c each. 

Liliiini lancifoliiini al- 
bum. Pure white Japan Lily 

Liliam auratum. ^0 ceutS each. 

Liliiun laiicifoliiiui riibruiii, White aud red spotted, 
! 20 cents each, 

Lilium laucifolitim roseiim. Eose spotted, 20c each. 

These Japan Lilies are very beautiful aud fragrant. Should 
be planted from October till January. Perfectly suited to this 
climate. 




For the Southern States. 



123 









Lilium lancifolinm rubrum. 



Tuberoses, double flowering. 



PtTeoiiia sinensis. Ohiuese or herbaceous Pseonia. |Herba- 
ceous plants of different colors and great beauty ; they should be 
planted during fall in a shady situation, as it flowers early in 
spring. If planted too late it will not flower perfectly 5 40c each. 





Rammcalus. 



Scilla peruviana. 



Ranunculns. Double Flowering. The roots can b® 
planted during fall and winter^ either in the open ground or in 
pots. The French varieties are more robust than the Persian, and 
the flowers are larger. The ground should be rather dry, and if 
planted in the open ground, it will be well to have the spot a lit- 
tle higher than the bed or border. 

Persian Ranunculus 25 cents per dozen. 

French '' 50 " '' 

Scilla peruviana. These are green -house bulbs at the 
il^orth, but here they are hardy, and do well in the open ground. 
There are two varieties — the blue and the white. They throw up 
a shoot, on the end of which the flowers appear, forming a truss. 
Plant from October till January. 40 cents each. 

Tnlips. Double and single Tulips thrive better in a more 
Northern latitude than this, but some years they flower well here, 
and as they are cheap a few flowering bulbs will pay the small 



124 



Eichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



amount they cost. They should not be planted later than Decem- 
ber and placed very shallow in the ground; not more than one- 
third of the bulb should be covered. When near flowering they 
require a good deal of moisture. Single and double 50 cents per 
dozen. 

Tuberoses. Double Flowering. They are ornamental 
for the garden, and very valuable for making bouquets, on account 
of their pure white color and great fragrance. Plant during the 
spring months. Strong bulbs iO cents each, 75 cents per dozen. 



BOUQUET PAPESS, 



1 keep a large and varied stock of bouquet papers, besides the 
different kinds enumerated below. I also have finer qualities, 
satin, velvet and tarletou, ranging from 81.50 to $4.50 each : also^ 
some new st\les called Parisian, finished in the same exquisite style 
.as the above. They are very appropriate for bridal bouquets. 

PASTED CARTONS 



/^ 



^^ -^-^ 



^>^ 



\ 



Measure includes tlie Lace. 





Inches in 


Xo. 


diameter. 


4 


4i 


523 


4f 


1716 


5 


531 


5* 


1823 


5* 


1688 


7 


1606 


7i 


1648 


7i 


1662 


8 


518 


8 


1610 


8 


1682 


9 


1685 


9 


10 


H 


1609 


10 


1690 


10 


1918 


lOi 


552 


lOi 


167T 


11 



Der doz. 

$0 15 
15 
20 
15 
15 
25 
30 
3C 
35 
35 
:<5 
40 
40 
40 
50 
50 
50 
tiU 
60 



per gross | 


|1 50 I 


1 75 i 


2 00 i 


1 75 i 


1 75 j 


2 75 


3 00 


3 25 


3 50 


3 50 


3 50 


4 00 


4 00 


4 25 


5 00 j 


4 75 1 


5 PO 


5 00 


6 25 1 



1622 
1671 
1919 

533 
12 
1789 
1604 
1760 
1712 
1920 

501 
1693 
1922 

176 

549 
1923 

5^*5 
18 

507 



Inches ia 
diameter. 

lU 

lU 

12 

12 

12 

12^ 

13 

13 

K.U 

lU 

14 

15 

15 

15 

16 

16 

18 

18 

SO 



per rh-z. 

60 

60 

60 

60 

6[) 

60 

50 

60 

70 

90 

70 

90 

1 20 
1 00 

80 

1 50 
1 40 
1 oU 
1 50 



6 75 
6 75 

6 75 

7 00 
7 00 
7 00 

6 00 

7 00 
7 75 

10 00 
7 50 

10 00 
13 50 

11 00 
9 00 

15 00 

12 00 
15 00 
17 00 



For the Southern States. 



125 



ITALIANS, WITH TWELVE SCALLOPS. 
Measure exclusive of Lace. 



.#1 











Inches in 








Inches in 






No. 


diameter. 


each. 


per doz 


Xo. 


diameter. 


eaoli. 


per d07, 


34 


31 


|0 10 


$0 75 


31 


7i 


|0 15 


$1 50 


24 


6 


10 


90 


83 


n 


20 


1 60 


119 


6f 


15 


1 25 


99 


8i- 


20 


1 75 


8 


/ 


10 


1 00 











ITALIANS, WITH TWENTY-FOUR SCALLOPS. 
Measure exclusive of Lace. 









Inches in 








Inches in 






No. 


diameter. 


each. 


per doz 


No. 


diamet«r. 


each. 


per doz 


53 


6 


$0 10 


$1 00 


73 


9 


$0 25 


$2 25 


54 


7i 


15 


1 40 


15 


12 


25 


2 50 


76 


8i 


20 


1 80 











ITALIANS, WITH GILT OR SILVER LACE, TWELVE SCALLOPS. 
Measure exclusive of Lace. 



Inches in 
No. diameter. 

36 6 gilt, 25c each. 

44 6i gilt and silver, 25c each. 

39 7 •' 30c each. 



Inches in 
No. diameter. 

33 8 gilt, 50c each. 

13 9 '' 50c " 

15 9 silver, 50c each. 




126 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



MATTHEWS' GARDEN SEED DRILL 

A reliable Seed Drill is rec- 
ognized as one of the most valu- 
able implements in use. It is a 
great labor-saver, and no one 
who raises vegetables, whether 
in large or small quantities, can 
afford to do without one. But as 
an unreliable drill is worse than 
worthless, care should be taken 
to select the best. We theiefore 
invite your attention to the Mat- Price |13 oo Boxed, 

thews' Garden Seed Drill. No better one can be procured. Medals 
and testimonials confirming its superority over all other drills, 
have been repeatedly bestowed upon it from all quarters; and, 
as it has been improved from time to time, it is now everywhere 
acknowledged to be 

THE MOST PEEFECT DRILL IN USE. 

It is designed to be used in field or garden. When in opera- 
tion, it opens the furrow, drops the seed accurat'jly at the desired 
depth, covers it and lightly rolls it, and at the same time marks 
the next row, all of which is done, with mechanical precision, by 
simply propelling the drill forward. In this way it sows, with an 
evenness and rapidity impossible for the most skillful hand to do, 
all the different varieties of Beet^ Carrot, Onion, Turnip, Parsnip, 
Sage, Spinach, Sorghum, Peas, Beans, Broom Corn, Fodder Corn, etc. 

It is simple in principle, and is constructed of the best ma- 
terial and in the best style and finish. The agitator stirs the seed 
in the hopper thoroughly by a positive motion, which insures 
continuous and uniform delivery, and the bottom of the hopper 
is made sufficiently dishing to sow the smallest quantity of seed. 
When desired, the movement of the agitator can be checked, and 
the drill may then be propelled forward or backward without 
dropping the seed. A simple contrivance accurately gauges the 
uniform deposit of the seed to any required depth, thus avoiding the 
risk of planting at irregular depthb^, or so deep in places as to de- 
stroy the seed. The markers are made adjustable for the purpose 
of marking the rows at any desired distance apart, and they 
mark them distinctly, whether the ground is even or uneven. 

Another great advantage which it possesses over any other 
machine is that it is the only drill ivhich has an INDICATOR ivith 
the names of different seeds thereo7i. This indicator is devised to 
simplify the adjustment for sowing different varieties of seeds. It 
is securely attached to the side of the hopper, in plain sight, and 
is made use of for changing from sowing one kind of seed to an- 
other by simply turning it until the name of the seed to be planted 
comes up to the indicator-pin, which revolves the dial, attached 
to the bottom of the hopper, until the right sized hole in it for 
planting that seed comes directly into place. This ingenious in- 



For the Southern States. 



127 



vention is a great improvement over any other method iu use, and 
is infinitely more conveiueut and reliable. 

The drill is complete in all its arrangements, and is very du- 
rable. There are no cams, gears, springs or belts to get out of 
order, nor are there any parts subject to the unusual wear, and 
rightly used, it will last many years and do a vast amount of ser- 
vice without requiring any repairs. 



MATTHEWS' HAND CULTIVATOR. 

The Matthews' Hand Cul- 
tivator is one or the best im- 
plements iu use for weeding be- 
tween row crops, and for flat cul- 
tivation generally, and is an in- 
dispensable companion to the 
seed drill. 

It is thoroughly constructed 
throughout,* very durable; easy 
to operate. A hoy can do as mtieh 
with it as six men ivith hoes. It P"«^ ^6 50 Boxed, 

spreads from 6 to 14 inches, and will cut all the ground covered, 
even when spread to its greatest extent. Its teeth are of a new 
and improved pattern, and thoroughly pulverize and mellow the 
soil. The depth of cultivating may be accurately gauged by rais- 
ing or lowering the wheels, which is quickly done by the use of a 
thumb screw. 





Loop Fastener, swing socket Scythe Snath. ^ 




Ladies' Set, Floral Tools. No. 5. 



128 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Or.^^T^jDJBi^ iis^i=LE3ivi:Eisra:s. 




Boys' Favorite Set. 



Weeding Hoe and Kake Combined. 




Cast Steel Garden Trowel. 




Strawberry Fork. 




Spading Fork, D Handle. 



Excelsior Weeding Hook. 



For the Southern States. 



129 





Slide Pruning Shear. 



Hedge Shear. 




Saynor's Pruning Knife, No. 194. 




Saynor's Pruning Knife, No. 192. 



Weiss' Hand Pruniug Shear. 



O. G. Hand Pruning Shear. 



Dutch, or Scuffle Hoe. 



130 Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



PEIOE LIST OF &ARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 



Improved American Garden Syringes. 

No. 2 — Conservatory, witli two extra roses ^5 00 

No. 2— Green Hbuse', " " " 6 00 

No. 5— " " " " 750 

No. 8— " " " " 900 

HOES. 

W. A. Lyndon's Louisiana, No. I .• . 1 15 

No.2 ....120 

No.3 125 

Lane's Planters' ( with handle) No. 90 

No. 1 095 

No.2 100 

Oval Eve Planters' polished. 6 inches 60 

8 " 75 

King, Briggs & Co.'s Scovill's Pattern. No, 3 65 

" " " " " No.2 55 

D. & H. Scovill's Imp, Planters', 8 inches 75 

Lane's Crescent, No. 1 65 

No.2 060 

Champion, with handle 75 

S. S. Tuttle's Socket, with handle 75 

Two Pronged Weeding, with handle 50 

Magic Hoe 75 

RAKES. 

Malleable Iron, 9 teeth, (Ladies') „ 50 

" " 11 " 060 

" 13 " 075 

Steel. " 10 " 065 

" 12 " 080 

" 14 '* 090 

" 16 " 100 

SPADES. 

Ames' Long Handled, 1 25 

Hubbard " 100 

Naylor's " 75 

Ames' Short Handled 1 50 

Porter's " 125 

Rowlad's " 100 

SHOVELS. 

Rowland's Long Handled 1 00 

Ames'Short " ..140 

SCYTHE SNATHS. 

Handles for French Scythe Blades 75 

No. 1, Round Socket, slip ring 75 

No. 0, Plate Heel, slip ring 80 

No. 00, Loop Fastener 90 



For the Southern States. 



131 



SICKLES. 

English, (welded), No. 2 40 

N().3 45 

'' (riveted back), No. 1 75 

'* " No. 2 OGO 

• " " No. 3 085 

French 4Uc and 45 

SHEARS. 

Hedge Shears, 10 inches 2 50 

8 " $2 00 and 2 25 

7 " SOO 

Pruning " No. 1, ^Weiss) - 2 00 

No 2, " 150 

'' " No. 3. '' ...175 

" " 8 inches, (French) 150 

9 '• " ... 175 

" " O. G 1 .50 

KNIVES. 

Union Knife Co.'s Budding, (wooden handle) 

Geo. Wostenholmes " (white bone handle) Ne. 1, |1 00 ; No. 2, 

H. & J. W. King's Pruning .from 60c to 

Saynor & Cook's " from |1 50 to 

Aaron Burkiushaw's Pruning and Budding from 40c to 



75 
125 
125 
175 

80 



FORKS. 



Spading, Long Handled . 

" D Handle (strapped). 

Manure, Long Handled, 4 tine. 

Short '* A " . 



125 
125 
1 00 
50 



POTATO HOOKS. 



Long Handled, 6 tine. 

4 '* . 



75 
65 



SCYTHES. 



French, First Quality, (polished), 22 inches. 

24 " . 



Second Quality, (blue), 



Common, 



26 
28 
22 
24 
26 
28 
22 
24 
26 



90 
100 

1 15 
125 
80 

90 

1 00 
1 10 
75 
85 
95 



FLORAL TOOLS. 

The Boy's Favorite — Hoe, Spade and Rake 

LADIES' SETS. 



No. 5 — 4 pieces. Hoe, Rake, Spade and Fork 

No. 68 — 3 " Hoe and Rake combined, Fork and Spade. 
No. 67—3 " " " " 

Ns. 3-4 " Best English, extra finish 

No. 4—4 " " " 



2 50 



125 
175 

150 

3 00 

4 00 



132 Richard Frotscherh Almanac and Garden Manual 

TREE PRUNERS. 

Length of Pole 8 feetj weight 3i pounds 2 50 

'• 10 " " 4i " 250 

Extia Knives eacli 30 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Pruning Saws...... 50c and 1 00 

Excejsi< T Weeding Hooks 25 

Transplanting Shovels 25c and 35 

" Trowels, (American) 6 inch, 15c ; 7 inch, 20 

Forks • No. 1,20c: No. 2, 25 

Scotch Whetstones 25 

Coramon " .- 20 

French " 15 

Lathing Hatchets 70c and 75 

Nottingham Bill Hooks 150 

Wooden Hay Rakes 25 

Hoe Handles 20c and 25 

WATERING POTS. 

6 Quarts, Japanned 50 

S " " 065 

10 " " 075 

12 " " 100 

16 " " 140 

Extra Heavy, (hand made) |1 50, %l 75 and 2 25 

FLOWER POTS. 

3 inch - per dozen 40 

4 " - " 060 

5 " " 075 

6 " " 090 

7 '' '' 120 

8 " " 150 

9 " " 175 

10 " " 225 

12 " " 375 

SAUCERS. 

5 inch per dozen 60 

6 " " 060 

7 " " 080 

8 " ••••.... " 100 

9 " " 120 

10 '•' " 150 



For the Southern States. 



133 



DHOURO. OR EGYPTIAN CORN. 

f Sorghum Vulgare.) 
By B. M. Hudson, Esq. 

This cereal is ordinarily supposed to be a uative of Asia, but 
it is cultivated largely as well in Africa, some portions of the West 
Indies and South America. In the United States it was formerly 
planted quite extensively in the Southern States j but, at present, 
many more times as much of it is grown in Kansas as in all the 
rest of this country. Its name varies almost with tlie locality in 
which it is raised; acd the varieties— the results of sports or 
crossings — are almost as numerous as its designations. In Kan- 
sas, which must be regarded as the leading locality of its present 
production in this country, two varieties mainly are cultivated, 
the Bed and the White. Both of these are good, equally so, per- 
haps, unless as to productiveness, for it is generally believed that 
the Red produces much more grain than the White. Also it is 
said that the Bed will ripen seed farther North than the White; 
but in the Southern States this is of no consideration, in as much 
as both, in one season, have produced seed from which a second 
seed -bearing crop has been produced without difhculty. Nor does 
it appear, as far as actual experiment has gone, that the Bed is 
much, if any, more productive than the White in the Southern 
belt, at least near the Gulf coast. 

In nutrition the grain is but little behind wheat; while its 
yiel<i per acre is greater than any cereal in the known world. From 
100 to 150 bushels of grain on rich lands is but an ordinary yield ; 
and it is claimed that in Kansas this year near 200 bushels per 
acre have been produced. This is quite possible of belief to those 
who saw the magnificent panicles on exhibition ac Atlanta, at the 
International Cotton Exposition this autumn. In certain portions 
of Kansas, where prolonged droughts are usual, its cultivation 
has recently been successfully introduced as a substitute for 
wheat; for drought seems to have but little iutiuence to retard its 
growth. Indeed, when, planted side by side with Indian Corn, the 
latter from drought has been curled and twisted almost beyond 
hope, the former exhibited no external effects of the dry season. 

Of course the yield varies with the soil on which it grows, 
the richer the soil the greater the yield ; but it will grow well on 
soil however poor; in this respect taking precedence even of the 
cow pea. It grows from six to tvelve feet high, and may be re- 
peatedly cut for green soiling. For, not only as a cereal, making 
a meal far better than that of ludian Cora, but also as a forage 
plant the Dhouro is invaluable. Not only does it spring up from 
the stubble, when cut at from 3 to 5 feet high, but also after ma- 
turing seed-heads it sends forth shoots or suckers from lower 
joints, which in turn produce smaller heads. It is rich in saccha- 
rine matter and aftbrds a good, though rough hay or fodder when 
cured. Cut when very young and succulent it is not easy to cure 
unless the weather be fine; but, as it continues to grow till frost, 
making new suckers from the joints all the time, it may be allowed 



134 



Richard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 



to mature seed, be cut and then easily cured, forming a fair fod- 
der with rich grain combined. Cut in this way the stalks not only 
cure more easily, but keep far better than any other of the family 
of pithy grasses. It will not become sour like Indian Corn. The 
most economical aud practical way of curing it, is, as it will thus 
appear, to cut and house stalks and seed all together when the 
larger quantity of seeds has ripened. All kinds of stock are fond 
of both the fodder and grain, and cattle especially eat it with 
great avidity. 

It is cultivated either by sowing broadcast for hay or to be 
cut for green soiling, or in drills about three feet apart. If sown 
broadcast, one bushel of seed to the acre, harrowed in, is suffi- 
cient. The yield of green stuff and cured hay is simply enormous 5 
its growth is rapid and continuous till frost -, so that there is no 
fear of losing it from becoming over-ripe. If sowed in drills one 
peck of seed per acre is ample. Of course, except on very rich 
land, the seed-heads will be larger aud finer if not sown too thick- 
ly. For grain the stalks should not be nearer than 12 inches in 
the drill, but if to be cut repeatedly till frost for green soiling, it is 
better to sow quite thickly in the drills. An inch or an inch and a 
half is the proper depth for covering the seed. Of course the 
ground should be well ploughed and harrowed before sowing. 
When the plants are well up they should be thinned to the proper 
distance in the drills by chopping across the rows. One or two 
good ploughiugs is all the cultivation needed. Once well started 
no fear need be entertained that weeds or grass can make bead- 
way — they will be speedily choked out by the dense growth of 
foliage. So rapid is its growth that the seed crop can soon be 
harvested and, as before stated, a new crop from the t?eed be grown 
the same year. It can be sown at anytime in the far South from 
March to August; it is not injured by a slight frost when young. 
The leaves, if stripped from the stalks, make as good fodder as 
those of Indian Corn, although they are not so large. If both 
fodder and grain are gathered, and stock turned in to feed on the 
stalks, and the remnants then ploughed in, it will be found that 
the land will lose very little by the operation. It is as^touishing 
how quickly cattle will grow fat on these bare, succulent stalks. 

The green fodder, by actual analysis, as coniptuvd with Bed 
Clover in blossom, is shown to be richer buthii! heating piopeities 
and fat forming principles than the clover, but not so rich in flesh 
producers. The following table will show their comparative val- 
ues : — 






2.^ 



p ?: 



E 
^ 






Dhouro 

Eed Clover in blossom 



77.3 

78.0 



2iA 
20.3 



l.I 
1.7 



2.9 
3.7 



11.9 



t).7 
8.0 



1.4 

0.8 



As Dhouro will yield more grain, fodder and stalks on a 
oreater variety of lauds, with less labor, in one season, aud will 
jeave more rough litter to be turned into the sod than any other 



For the Southern States. 



135 



cereal, besides being excellent food for both man and beast, it cer- 
tainly deserves to be considered one of the most valuable cereals, 
and is worthy of the attention of every farmer in the South. Even 
as feed for chickens nothing is its equal. 

Daring the last two or three years a variety, which experi- 
ence shows to be radically different from those above described, 
has been sent out by the enterprising proprietors of the Rural 
New YorJcer. The seed-heads of this variety, popularly linown as 
the " Rural Branching Sorghum," are borne upright, in a vertical 
position, while the heads of the others are mainly droopiug, bend- 
ing downwards in a graceful curve. Also, the seeds of the Branch- 
ing variety are somewhat smaller and more spherical than in the 
other kinds. In addition the seed mature much more slowly, but 
in ample time to be harvested in the lower Gulf States before frost. 
The stalk growth of the ^' Rural Branching" variety is far larger 
than that of the others, being in fact as large as that of large 
Southern Corn ; while it obtains a height of from 15 to 16 feet on 
very ordinary piney-woods lands. The leaf also is as large fully 
as that of Indian Corn, thus producing more fodder by at least 
one-fourth than Indian Corn on the same land. This variety, 
moreover, tillers or suckers at the ground enormously, each seed 
producing from three to a dozen stalks, and sometimes more. 
When once well under way, it can be cut for green soiling oftener 
and will yield at each cutting far more fodder than the other va- 
rieties. It suckers and tillers more and more the oftener it is cut ; 
and, so far, it exceeds greatly in yield of green fodder and hay 
any of the familiar fodder plants, not excepting perhaps even the 
Fearl Millet. The ''Rural Branching" variety is, therefore, more 
valuable as a forage plant to be cut for green soiling, or for curing 
as hay. This variety should be planted exclusively in drills four 
feet apart, and not nearer than 18 to 20 inches in the drill, on ac- 
count of its mammoth growth. All of these varieties are annuals. 



THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

{Helianthus Tuber osus.) 
By E. M. Hudson. 

Used as a vegetable, the Jerusalem Artichoke makes a deli- 
cious pickle; and when cooked, as hereafter dirt^cted, it is es- 
teemea by counisseuis as a luxury. 

Wash and scrape or pare them; boil in milk and water till 
they are soft, which will be from fifteen to thirty minutes. Take 
them out and stew them for a few minutes ia a sauce made by 
rolling a bit of butter of the size of a walnut in flour, mixed with 
half a pint oL cream or milk, and seasoned with pepper, salt, or 
grated nutmeg. 

It is as a forage or root crop, however, that the Artichoke 
possesses unusual merit for the farmer. Its habit may be styled 
self- propagating, for when once established it is almost perpetual ; 
and this gives it a peculiar value. It will grow on exceedingly 
poor land and produce well, while on rich land the yield is enor- 



136 Richard Frotscher^s Almanac a/nd Garden Manual 

mous. Three bushels of tubers are amply suffii5ient to plant an 
acre, the large ones beiug cut into pieces with two or three eyes 
like potatoes. The land should be thoroughly ploughed, and 
from January to April they should be planted in furrows about 
three to four feet apart, dropping the tubers about eighteen inches 
apart, and covering with a plough. 

When they are well up, plough them as you would corn ; and 
when about a foot high, plough them again, throwing a furrow to 
each side, and you are done cultivating them forever. The first 
year they will yield a good crop, (from five to eight hundred bush- 
els), and will improve for two or three years, if the soil is good, 
till they double the product of the first year. On piney-woods 
land seven hundred bushels to the acre is only a fair yield. On 
very rich land 1500 to 2()00 bushels, it is said, have been produced. 
InA ugust the tops may be cut and cured for hay, which is quite 
equal to corn fodder, or may be fed greea, soiled. The yield is 
large, and the tops are eagerly eaten by cattle, , horses and mules. 
The tops, if cut, should betaken off about a foot from the ground. 
One cutting does not at all affect the yield of the tubers. In I^o- 
vember the hogs should be turned in to harvest the tubers for 
themselves, and may remain on them till March. In carbonace- 
ous matter — starch or its equivalent — they are but a trifle inferior 
to potatoes, as will be seen from the following table: 

In 1000 parts — Flesh Formers. Fat Formers. 

Potatoes 14 189 

Carrots 6 66 

Parsnips . . . „ 12 70 

Mangolds 2 102 

Sugar Beets 3 136 

White Turnips 1 40 

Artichokes 10 188 

Thus it will be seen that in 1000 parts potatoes contain 200 
parts of nutriment, and artichokes 198 parts ; while turnips con- 
tain only 41 parts. Yet the turnip, above all roots, has made 
English agriculture progressive, because they may be fed on land 
without gatherir?g. The artichoke is unaffected in the ground by 
any amount of cold, and, indeed, should always remain there un- 
til gathered for use or planting. 

The enormous yield, the small amount of labor in cultivation, 
and the nutritious character of the tubers, make them the most 
economical food for hogs thac can possibly be grown. And the 
hog8, if suffered to root them, will be an advantage to them by 
breaking up and softening the soil as f.ir down as pulverized. 
Sows with sucJcling pigs should not go on them, as the artichokes are 
said to injure the quality of the milk so as to cause suckling pigs 
to dwindle ; but as soon as they are weaned rhe pigs will do finely 
by rooting for their living. These artichokes are also the health- 
iest food that hogs can have, and they need nothing else but salt, 
ashes and water when fed on them. 

Price per Qt. per Gall. per Bush. 



INDEX. 



. Page. 

Almanac... 6 to 17 

Artichoke 23 

Asparagus "23 

Beans, (Busb) 24 

Beans, (Pole)..., 25 

Beets .26 to 28 

Borecole or Kale 28 

Broccoli 28 

Brussels Sprouts 28 

Bulbous Roots 120 to 124 

Bouquet Papers 124 and 125 

Cabbage 29 to 32 

Cauliflower ,. 32 to 34 

Carrot - 34 to 36 

Celery 36 to 38 

Chervil.. 38 

Collards.. ..38 

Corn Salad .38 

Corn...;.. 39 and 40 

Cress. -.40 

Cucumber 40 and 41 

Climbing Plants .118 and 119 

Directions for Planting. ... .79 to 86 
Dhouro, or Egyptian Corn, 133 to 135 

Eggplant 41 and 42 

Endive ■ 42 

Flower Seeds-.-. 101 to 117 

Grass and Field Seeds. . 70 to 78 

Garden Implements 128 and 129 

Herb Seeds. 69 

Hot Bed 19 and 20 

Jerusalem Artichoke. . .135 and 136 

Kohlrabi. .......43 

Leek ......43 

Lettuce 43 to 45 



Page. 

Letter on Alfalfa ...91 to 94 

Melon, Musk 45 to 46 

Melon, Water.. 46 to 47 

Mustard 48 

Matthews' Seed Drill. . . .126 and 127 

Maltliews' Hand Cultivator 127 

Nasturtium- 48 

Okra... 48 to 49 

Onion 49 and 50 

Parsley 51 

Parsnip 51 

Peas. 51 to 53 

Pepper 54 

Potatoes 55 to 59 

Pumpkin 60 

Price List. .86 to 91 

Price List Garden Implements, 150 

to 132 

Radish 60 tu 62 

Remarks on raising vegetables 

for shipping 5 

Roquette.. 62 

Spinach 62 

Salsify... 62 

Sorrel --- 63 

Squash 63 

Strawberry Growing. .... .94 to 100 

Seeds by Mail .4 

Sowing Seeds 20 and 21 

Tomato .64 to 66 

Turnip.......... 66 to 69 

• Table showing quantity of seed 

required to the acre 22 

Vegetable Garden 18 and 19 



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liliii Ii@ti©lii 



Nos. 15 & 17 Du Maine Street, 



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DEALER- IN 



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SEED POTATOES A SPECIALT!. 



My stock of Seeds is the largest in the City, to 
which I call the attention of all in want of Fresh and 
(Reliable Seed. 

Orders respectfully solicited. All communications 
will meet with prompt attention. ~ ~ 



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